Ancient Indian History MCQ Questions with Answer

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Ancient Indian History MCQ Questions with Answer


Q1. The earliest evidence of agriculture in the Indian subcontinent has been obtained from

​(a) ​Brahmagiri ​

(b) ​Chirand ​

(c) ​Mehargarh

​(d) ​Burzahom

Answer: (c) ​

Explanation: Mehargarh is one of the most important Neolithic (7000 to 2500 BCE) sites in archaeology. It lies on the Kacchi Plain of Balochistan, Pakistan. It is one of the earliest sites with evidence of farming and herding in South Asia.

Q2. Which among the following has not been found in the excavation of Harappan sites?

(a) Drains and well

(b) Fort

(c) Reservoirs

(d) Temple with Shikhar

Answer: (d)

Explanation: No temples have been excavated from the sites of the Harappan Civilization. They used to worship ‘Mother and Pashupati Maharaj. Yoni and Lingam worship cultures were also prevalent in Harappa.

Q3. The term ‘Apabhramsa‘ was used in medieval Sanskrit texts to denote:

(a) Outcastes among the Rajputs

(b) Deviations from Vedic rituals

(c) Early forms of some of the modem Indian language

(d) Non-Sanskrit verse meters

Answer: (c) Early forms of some of the modem Indian language

Explanation:  Apabhramsa means Languages.

Q4. The Harappan Civilization was discovered in the year:

(a) 1935

(b) 1942

(c) 1921

(d) 1922

Answer: (c)

Explanation: First Harappan civilization was discovered in 1921.

Q5. Which one of the following texts of ancient India allows divorce to a wife deserted by her husband?

(a) Kamasutra

(b) Manava Dharma Shastra

(c) SukraNitisara

(d) Arthashastra

Answer:(d) Arthashastra

Explanation: Arthashastra was written by Kautilya.

Q6. Which among the following was the most extensive Harappan city? ​

(a) ​Banavali ​

(b) ​Ropar ​

(c) ​Lothal

​(d) ​Rakhigarhi

Answer: (d) ​

Explanation: Rakhigarhi was a large Harappan town known in 1963 when the area was first surveyed. Archaeologists found it the biggest Harappan city, larger and more extensive.

Before Rakhigarhi, Specialists in the Harappan civilization had argued that Mohenjodaro in Pakistan was the largest among the 2,000 Harappan sites known to exist in India, Pakistan and Afghanistan.

Q7. The home of Gargi, Maitreya and Kapila was at

(a) Vidisha

(b) Ujjain

(c) Pataliputra

(d) Mithila

Answer: (d)

Explanation: Gargi, Maitreya and Kapila all were great philosophers of the Vedic Age. They all belonged to Mithila ( present-Bihar).

Q8. Which of the following pairs are correctly matched?

  1. Mrichchakatikam–Shudraka
  2. Buddhacharita–Vasuvandhu
  3. Mudrarakshasha–Vishakadatta
  4. Harshacharita–Banabhatta

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:


(a) 1, 2, 3 and 4

(b) 1, 3 and 4

(c) 1 and 4

(d) 2 and 3

Answer: (b)

Explanation: Buddhacharita was written by Ashvaghosh.

Q9. Which one among the following sites is located in the valley of Ghaggar and its associated rivers? ​

(a) ​Alamgirpur

​(b) ​Lothal ​

(c) ​Kalibangan ​

(d) ​Banavali

Answer: (c)

Explanation: ​Kalibangan was located on the bank of river Ghaggar. Lothal is one of the most prominent cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. Many Indus Valley (or Harappan) sites have been discovered along the Ghaggar-Hakra beds.

Q10. The origins of Indian music could be traced to

(a) Rigvedic Samhita

(b) Yajurvedic Samhita

(c) Samavedic Samhita

(d) Atharvavedic Samhita

Answer: (c)

Explanation: The Samaveda (Song knowledge) is a collection (Samhita) of hymns taken from Sakala Sakha of Rigveda. These verses were sung by Udgatar priests at sacrifices. Indian Classical music has one of its roots in Samveda.

Q11. The following persons came to India at one time or another:

1. Fa-Hien, 2. I-Tsing, 3. Megasthanese, 4. Hieun-Tsang

The correct chronological sequence of their visits is:

(a) 3, 1, 2, 4

(b) 3, 1, 4, 2

(c) 1, 3, 2, 4

(d) 1, 3, 4, 2

Answer: (b)

Explanation: Fa-Hien–405–411 CE; I-Tsing–671–695 CE; Megasthanese – 302–298 BC; Hieun–Tsang–630–645CE

Q12. ​In which Indus valley civilization sites, the people were known to water reservoir technique? ​

(a) ​Banawali ​

(b) ​Kalibangan ​

(c) ​Dholavira ​

(d) ​Chanhudaro

Answer: (c)

Explanation: ​Dholavira had a series of water-storing tanks and step wells, and its water management system has been called ‘unique’. The unique feature is the sophisticated water conservation system of channels and reservoirs, the earliest found anywhere in the world and completely built of stone.

Q13. Which area of India was known as Avantika in ancient times?

(a) Avadh

(b) Ruhelkhand

(c) Bundelkhand

(d) Malwa

Answer: (d)

Explanation: Avanti was one of the 16 Mahajanapadas.

  • It was located at present-day Malwa.
  • It was divided into two parts by Vindhyas
  • Northern Part with its capital Ujjaiyini
  • Southern part with its capital Mahismati

Q14. The site of Alamgirpur is located on the bank of river: ​

(a) ​Maskra ​

(b) ​Hindon ​

(c) ​Chinab

​(d) ​Bhader

Answer: (b) ​

Explanation: An Indus site has been discovered at Alamgirpur, 27 km west of Meerut. Alamgirpur is located on the left bank of the Hindon River, a tributary of the Yamuna.

Rojdi was located on the bank of river Bhader. Manda, the northernmost site of the Indus Valley Civilization was located on the right bank of river Chenab.

Q15. Assertion (A): The origin of the feudal system in ancient India can be traced to military campaigns.

Reason (R): There was considerable expansion of the feudal system during the Gupta period.

(a) Both A and R are true but R is the correct explanation of A

(b) Both A and R are true but R is not a correct explanation of A

(c) A is true but R is false

(d) A is false but R is true

Answer: (b) Both A and R are true but R is not a correct explanation of A

Explanation: Both the statements are true but do not explain each other.

Q16. Which ruler murdered his father, Bimbisara to ascend the throne?

(a) Ashoka

(b) Ajatshatru

(c) Kanishka

(d) Simukha

Answer: (b)

Explanation: Bimbisara was the first ruler of the Haryanka dynasty of the Magadha (Capital-Rajgriha). His son Ajatshatru imprisoned him and killed him to ascend the throne.

Q17. Whose army did Alexander the Greek ruler confront on the banks of the river Jhelum?

(a) Chandragupta Maurya

(b) Ambi

(c) Dhanananda

(d) Porus

Answer: (d)

Explanation: The Battle of Hydaspes was fought between Alexander the Great and the Porus of the Paurvan Kingdom in 326 BC on the banks of river Hydaspes (now known as Jhelum).

Q18. The first Tirthankara of the Jains was:

(a) Arishtanemi

(b) Parshvanath

(c) Ajitanath

(d) Rishabha

Answer: (d)

Explanation: (i) Tirthankaras are Jain spiritual Gurus.

(ii) Rishabhanatha is 1st out of 24 Jain Tirthankaras.

(iii) His other names are Adinatha, Adishvara, Yugadideva, Prathamaraja and Nebhya.

(iv) Parshvanatha was 23rd Tirthankara.

(v) Vardhmana Mahavira was the last (24th) Tirthankara.

Q19. In which one of the following cities is the Lingaraja Temple located?

(a) Bhubaneswar

(b) Bijapur

(c) Kolkata

(d) Shravananbelagola

Answer: (a) Bhubaneswar

Explanation: Lingaraja Temple was constructed by YayatiKesari, ruler of Orissa. It is located in Bhubaneshwar.

Q20. Who propounded the ‘Eight-Fold Path’ for the end of the misery of mankind?

(a) Mahavir

(b) Gautam Buddha

(c) Adi Shankaracharya

(d) Kabir

Answer: (b)

Explanation: Buddha gave the eightfold path to end the misery of life

These Are

(i) Right View

(ii) Right Resolve

(iii) Right Speech

(iv) Right Conduct

(v) Right Livelihood

(vi) Right effort

(vii) Right Mindfulness

(viii) Right Samadhi

This eight-fold path leads to ‘Nirvana’.

Q21. Mrichchhakatika‘ an ancient Indian book written by Shudraka deals with:

(a) The love affair of a rich merchant with the daughter of a courtesan

(b) The victory of Chandragupta II over the Shaka Kshatrapas of western India

(c) The military expeditions and exploits of Samudragupta

(d) The love affairs between a Gupta king and a princess of Kamarupa

Answer: (a) The love affair of a rich merchant with the daughter of a courtesan

Explanation: Mrichchhakatika (The Clay Court) is a Sanskrit play written by Shudraka in 2nd C BC. It is about a young man named Charudatta, and his love for Vasantasena, a rich courtesan.

Q22.Buddha’ means-

(a) The Enlightened one

(b) The Religious Preacher

(c) The Genius

(d) The Powerful

Answer: (a)

Explanation: The term ‘Buddha’ means ‘The enlightened one’ i.e. the one who has attained ‘Bodhi’ (wisdom). Siddhartha Gautama the founder of Buddhism was later known as Gautam Buddha.

Q23. In the Indus valley civilization period, Lapis-Lazuli was imported from: ​

(a) ​Badakhshah

​(b) ​Iran ​

(c) ​Mesopotamia ​

(d) ​Gujrat

Answer: (a)

Explanation: The Sar-i Sang mines in the region of Badakhshah in northeast Afghanistan were probably the source for all Lapis-Lazuli used by the ancient people. So the people of the Indus Valley Civilization period imported Lapis-Lazuli from Badakhshah (Afghanistan).

Q24.Prince of Piligrims’ was the name attributed to

(a) Fa-Hien

(b) Hiuen – tsang

(c) I-tsing

(d) Megasthenes

Answer: (b)

Explanation: The Chinese traveller and Buddhist monk Hiuen Tsang is called the ‘Prince of pilgrims’. He came to India in the reign of Harshavardhan.

Q25. Consider the following statements:

  1. VardhamanMahavira’s mother was the daughter of Lichchhavi chief Chetaka
  2. Gautama Buddha’s mother was a princess from the Koshalan dynasty
  3. Parshvanatha, the twenty-third Tirthankara, belonged to Benaras

Which of these statements is/are correct?

(a) Only 1

(b) Only 2

(c) 2 and 3

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (c)

Explanation: VardhamanMahavira’s mother, Trishala was the sister (not the daughter) of Lichchhavi chief Chetaka.

Q26. Consider the following statements and select the correct answer from the codes given below: ​

Assertion (A): The worship of Mother Goddess as a feature of Harappan religion was prevalent in all the main Harappan cities.

Reason (R):​ The female terracotta figurines have been discovered in large numbers from Harappa and Mohenjodaro.

Codes: ​

(a) ​Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.

​(b) ​Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A.  ​

(c) ​A is true, but R is false

​(d) ​A is false, but R is true

Answer: (c)

Explanation: The worship of the Mother Goddess was an important feature of the Harappa religion. This perception is not because of the discovery of a large number of female terracotta figurines, but because of certain representations of seals. For instance, one of the discovered seals shows a nude woman, with her legs apart, head downwards and a plant stemming out from her vagina, interpreted as a prototype of the Earth mother, Shakambhari. Also, not all of the female terracotta figurines represented goddesses or had maternal associations. Some of them are believed to have a cultic significance, or as a part of household rituals and may also have been used as toys or decorative items.

Q27. The Jaina literature is known as-

(a) Tripitakas

(b) Epics

(c) Aryasutras

(d) Angas

Answer: (d)

Explanation: The Jain literature is known as Angas.

Q28. Which one of the following sequences indicates the correct chronological order?

(a) Shankaracharya–Ramanuja–Chaitanya

(b) Ramanuja–Shankaracharya–Chaitanya

(c) Ramanuja–Chaitanya–Shankaracharya

(d) Shankaracharya–Chaitanya–Ramanuja

Answer: (a) Shankaracharya–Ramanuja–Chaitanya

Explanation: The correct chronological order is Shankaracharya (9th Century CE) – Ramanuja (1017 – 1137 CE) – Chaitanya (1436-1533 CE)

Q29. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer from the codes given below the lists:

A.  Cemeteries H and R 371.  Daimabad
B.  Dockyard2.  Mohenjodaro
C.  Pashupati Mahadev3.  Harappa Seal
D.  Copper chariot4.  Lothal

​Codes: A B C D

(a)        3 4 2 1

(b)       4 3 2 1

(c)        1 2 3 4

(d)       1 3 2 4

Answer: (a)

Explanation: ​The correct matching pairs are—cemeteries H and R37 with Harappa, Dockyard and Lothal, Pashupati Mahadev Seal and Mohenjodaro, Daimabad with the copper chariot.

Q30. The Ghadr (Ghadar) was a

(a) Revolutionary association of Indians with headquarters at San Francisco

(b) Nationalist organization operating from Singapore

(c) Militant organization with headquarters at Berlin

(d) Communist movement for India’s freedom with headquarters at Tashkent

Answer: (a)

Explanation: The Ghadar Party was a revolutionary association founded by Punjabi Indians, in the United States and Canada with the aim of gaining India’s independence from British rule. Key members included LalaHarDayal, Sohan Singh Bhakna, Kartar Singh Sarabha, and RashbehariBose.It had its headquarters in San Francisco.

Q31. The tank of the Great Bath complex at Mohenjo-Daro had stairs on ​

  1. ​Northern side ​
  2. ​Southern side ​
  3. ​Eastern side ​
  4. ​Western side ​

Select the correct answer from the codes given below: ​

Codes: ​

(a) ​1 only ​

(b) ​3 only ​

(c) ​1 and 2 ​

(d) ​3 and 4

Answer: (c)

Explanation: The tank of the Great Bath complex at Mohenjo-Daro was surrounded by staircases on two sides: the northern well as the southern sides. These staircases surrounding the tank of the building lead to either the roof or the upper storey. Due to the size of the storey and its proximity to the building, which was considered to be a site for ‘ritual bathing’, the room was supposed to be of the chief priest or may have belonged to a group of priests.

Q32. Where was the first Buddhist Council held?

(a) Vaishali

(b) kashmir

(c) Rajagriha

(d) Pataliputra

Answer: (c)

Explanation: The first Buddhist Council was held at Rajagriha.

Q33. In the Mauryan dynasty, the Kalinga war took place in the year-

(a) 260 BC

(b) 261 BC

(c) 126 BC

(d) 232 BC

Answer: (b)

Explanation: Rock description XIII describes the war of Kalinga. The war took place in 261 B.C.

Q34. Which of the following Kingdoms were associated with the life of the Buddha?

  1. Avanti
  2. Gandhara
  3. Kosala
  4. Magadha

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1, 2 and 3

(b) 2 and 4.

(c) 3 and 4 only

(d) 1, 3 and 4

Answer: (c)

Explanation: Buddh was born in Lumbini, in Kosalakingdom.Buddhdied in Kusinara, in Magadha kingdom. Avanti lay outside the area visited by buddha and was converted to his teaching by his disciple Mahakaccana. Gandhara is the western part of Pakistan & Afghanistan and Buddha never went to Pakistan.

Q35. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer from the codes given below the lists:

List-I (Harappa settlement)List-II (River)
A.  Lothal1.  Indus
B.  Kalibangan2.  Sutlej
C.  Ropar3.  Ravi
D.  Harappa4.  Ghaggar
E.  Mohenjo-Daro5.  Bhogavo

​Codes: A B C D E

(a)         5 4 2 3 1

(b)       2 5 1 4 3

(c)        4 5 2 3 1

(d)        5 4 3 2 1

Answer: (a)

Explanation: The correct matching pairs are – Lothal and Bhogavo, Kalibangan and Ghaggar, Ropar and Sutlej, Harappa and Ravi, Mohenjodaro and Indus.

Q36. Which one of the following edicts mentions the personal name of Ashoka?

(a) Kalsi

(b) Rummindei

(c) Special Kalinga Edict

(d) Maski

Answer: (d) Maski

Explanation: Maski inscription at Raichur doab in Karnataka mentions his personal name, Devanam Priyadasi.

Q37. Bindusara was the son of?

(a) Ashoka

(b) Akbar

(c) Chandragupta Maurya

(d) Shivaji

Answer: (c)

Explanation: Second Mauryan Emperor Bindusara (297-273 B.C) was the son of Chandragupta Maurya (founder of the Maurya Empire). He was also called Amitraghata (the slayer of enemies).

Q38. ​Some of the following are/are correct regarding Harappan civilization.  ​

  1. ​Three principal varieties of wheat occur
  2. ​​Three varieties of barley were cultivated ​
  3. ​Lentils were cultivated ​
  4. ​Among oilseeds, mustard, linseed and sesamum have been found

​Which are those?

​(a) ​1, 2, 3 and 4 ​

(b) ​3 and 4

​(c) ​Only 4 ​

(d) ​1, 2 and 3

Answer: (a)

Explanation: All the given statements are correct. Three varieties of wheat occurred in the Harappan Civilization, namely, Triticum aestivum  (or bread wheat), Triticum durum and Triticum dicoccum  (also called Khapli). Three varieties of barleys were also sown. Wheat and barley are considered to be the most important crops. The cultivation of lentils, mustard, linseed and sesamum has been attested, along with that of the Finger millet, ragi, jowar and bajra.

Q39. ​Vedic literature is also known as: ​

(a) ​Shruti ​

(b) ​Smriti ​

(c) ​Sanhita

​(d) ​Vedanga

Answer: (a) ​

Explanation: Vedic literature is also known as Shruti. The literature has been handed down from time immemorial by verbal transmission.

Q40. Who wrote the book ‘Return of the Aryans’? ​

(a) ​Bhagwan S.  Gidwani ​

(b) ​L. D.  Kalla ​

(c) ​Avinash Chandra Das ​

(d) ​D. S.  Trivedi

Answer: (a)

Explanation: The book ‘Return of the Aryans’ was written by Bhagavan S. Gidwani. This book tells the epic story of the Aryans – a gripping tale of kings and poets, seers and gods, battles and romance and the rise and fall of civilizations.

Q41. Who of the following led the confederacy of ten kings against Sudasa?

​(a) ​Vishwamitra

​(b) ​Bharadwaja

​(c) ​Vashistha ​

(d) ​Atri

Answer: (a) ​

Explanation: The battle of ten kings is the story of the campaign and the decisive battle connected with sages Vishwamitra and Vashistha. Vishwamitra organized a confederacy against Sudas of all those who had enmity with Sudas.

Q42. The famous ‘Battle of Kings’ between Bharat and the host of ten kings was fought near the river: ​

(a) ​Sindhu ​

(b) ​Saraswati ​

(c) ​Parushni

​(d) ​Vitasta

Answer: (c)

Explanation: The famous Battle of ten kings between Bharat and the host of ten kings was fought near the river of Parushni. In the most important tribal war, the king of Bharata, Sudas was victorious.

Q43. The following map shows four of the sixteen Mahajanapadas that existed in ancient India:

The places marked A, B, C and D respectively are:

(a) Matsya, Cedi, Kosala, Anga

(b) Surasena, Avanti, Vatsa, Magadha

(c) Matsya, Avanti, Vatsa, Anga

(d) Surasena, Cedi, Kosala, Magadha

Answer: (c) Matsya, Avanti, Vatsa, Anga

Q44. The great silk route to the Indians was opened by:

(a) Kanishka

(b) Ashoka

(c) Harsha

(d) Fa-Hien

Answer: (a)

Explanation: Silk Route was established during the reign of the Han Dynasty of China. It connected China with East Europe, Mediterranean countries and Central Asia, passing through India. Silk Route played a major role in the development of international trade during the Kushana’s period.

Q45. Which one of the following ports handled the North Indian trade during the Gupta period?

(a) Tamralipti

(b) Broach

(c) Kalyan

(d) Cambray

Answer: (a) Tamralipti

Explanation: Tamralipta or Tamralipti was the name of an ancient city on the Bay of Bengal corresponding with Tamluk in modern-day India. Tamralipta may have been one of the most important urban centres of trade and commerce of early historic India, trading along the Silk Road with China, by Uttarapatha, the northern high road, the main trade route into the Middle East and Europe; and by seafaring routes to Bali, Java and the Far East.

Q46. Which of the following is concerned with the origin of Indian medicine? ​

(a) ​Rigveda ​

(b) ​Samveda

​(c) ​Yajurveda

​(d) ​Atharveda

Answer: (d)

Explanation: Atharvaveda is concerned with the origin of Indian medicine. It also consists mainly of magical spells and charms.

Q47. Which of the following Purusarthas is not a part of Trivarga? ​

(a) ​Artha

​(b) ​Dharma

​(c) ​Moksha

​(d) ​Kama

Answer: (c)

Explanation: Artha, Dharma and Kama are a part of Trivarga. But Moksh is not a part of Trivarga, it is a part of Chaturvarga.

Q48. The expounder of Yoga philosophy was: ​

(a) ​Patanjali ​

(b) ​Shankaracharya ​

(c) ​Jaimini ​

(d) ​Gautam

Answer: (a)

Explanation: ​The ancient Sage Patanjali was an expounder of the Yoga Sutras one of the most important texts of yoga covering all aspects of life. Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras describe the working of the mind and emotions.

Q49. The word Visamatta was used in the later Vedic Age for: ​

(a) ​The king ​

(b) ​The priest ​

(c) ​The trader ​

(d) ​The tax collector

Answer: (a)

Explanation: The word Visamatta was used in the later Vedic age for the king. In the Shatapatha Brahmana, the king is described as a devourer of the people.

Q50. Yavanika or curtain was introduced in Indian theatre by which of the following?

(a) Shakas

(b) Parthians

(c) Greeks

(d) Kushans

Answer: (c)

Explanation: Greeks are believed to have introduced Yavanika (curtains) in Indian Theatre.

Q51. Who were the first kings to issue gold coins in India?

(a) Mauryas

(b) Indo-Greeks

(c) Guptas

(d) Kushans

Answer: (b)

Explanation: The Indo-Greeks were the first to introduce gold coins in India. Each Indo-Greek King had his own distinctive coins (with his portrait). For e.g. Menander II issued gold coins and one of his coins in known as “Athene Promachus”.

Q52. Who among the following were contemporaries of Kanishka?

(a) Kamban, Banabhatta, Ashvagosha

(b) Nagarjuna, Ashvagosha, Vasumitra

(c) Asvagosha, Kalidasa, Banabhatta

(d) Kalidas, Kamba, Vasumitra

Answer: (b)

Explanation: Nagarjuna- the Mahayana Philosopher. Ashvagosha – the poet, Musician and Buddhist Monk. Vasumitra – the Buddhist Monk who presided over the fourth Buddhist council. All of these were contemporary to Kushana Ruler Kanishka.

Q53. With who is ‘Junagarh Rock Inscription’ associated?

(a) Rudradaman (b) Bimbisara

(c) Chandragupta-II

(d) Gautamiputra Satakarni

Answer: (a)

Explanation: The ‘Junagarh Rock Inscription’ is associated with Kshatrap ruler Rudradaman. It narrates the construction of the Urjyat Dam around Lake Sudarshan. These are the earliest known classical Sanskrit inscription.

Q54. Which one of the following dynasties was ruling over North India at the time of Alexander’s invasion?

(a) Nanda

(b) Maurya

(c) Sunga

(d) Kanva

Answer: (a) Nanda

Explanation: Alexander invaded India in 326 BC. Nandas were ruling over India at that time. The chronological order of these 4 dynasties was: Nanda, Maurya, Sunga and Kanvas.

Q55. ​In the Vedic Period, which animal was known as ‘Aghanya’? ​

(a) ​Bull ​

(b) ​Sheep

​(c) ​Cow ​

(d) ​Elephant

Answer: (c)

Explanation: The word Aghanya is referred to as the cow in many mantras of Vedas. The meaning of this word means, “Not to be killed under any circumstances”. ​​In the Rig-Veda, the Bull was the symbol of strength, Power and male Virility. The Vedic status of the bull was inherited by Nandi, the companion and vehicle of Shiva in later literature.

Q56. Harshavardhana organised his religious assembly at-

(a) Mathura

(b) Prayag

(c) Varanasi

(d) Tamralipt

Answer: (b)

Explanation: Harshavardhana organized his religious assembly at Prayag (Confluence of Ganga and Yamuna) in 643 A.D. The Prayag Assembly is also called “Maha Moksha Parishad”.

Q57. The game of ‘dice’ was part of the ritual of: ​

(a) ​Agnistoma

​(b) ​Aswamegha

​(c) ​Rajasuya ​

(d) ​Vajapeya

Answer: (c)

Explanation: ​Dicing seems to have a special significance when connected with myths and rituals. Dicing involves uncertainty, chance, the vagaries of fortune. The dice game is representative of the challenges that a king must endure during his reign. The game of dice is a part of the rituals of Rajasuya Yagya. ​

  • ​The Aswamegha was a horse sacrifice ritual followed by the Srauta tradition of the Vedic religion. It was used by ancient Indian kings to prove their imperial sovereignty.
  • Vajpeya Yajna was a Soma–Yajna, the offering of Soma formed an essential part of the Yajna, along with the killing of other animals. But is somewhere different from the Yajna. Somewhere it was a race of chariots. ​
  • ​ Agnistoma literally means ‘Praise of Agni’. It is the system of sacrifices that forms the link between men and god.

Q58. The Gayatri mantra is dedicated to: ​

(a) ​Indra ​

(b) ​Aditi ​

(c) ​Gayatri ​

(d) ​Savitri

Answer: (d)

Explanation: The Gayatri Mantra is a highly revered mantra, based on a Vedic Sanskrit verse from a hymn of the Rigveda. The Gayatri mantra is dedicated to Savitri is hence called Savitri. It is considered to be among the holiest mantras of Hinduism.

Q59. ​Which of the following Mandalas is completely devoted to the Vedic God Soma?

 ​(a) ​1 ​

(b) ​5 ​

(c) ​9 ​

(d) ​10

Answer: (c) ​

Explanation: Soma was one of the more important gods in Rigveda. The ninth Mandala of the Rigveda, also called the Soma Mandala, has 114 hymns, entirely devoted to Soma Pavamana, ‘Purifying Soma’, the sacred potion of the Vedic religion. ​

  • ​The first and the 10th Mandala are the latest part of Rig-Veda which was composed during the Early Iron Age. It has many hymns addressed to the different deities in which Agni, Indra are Vishnu are important.

Q60. The greatest development in the Kushana period was in the field of-

(a) Religion

(b) Art

(c) Literature

(d) Architecture

Answer: (b)

Explanation: The greatest development in the Kushana period was in the field of art. He patronized both Gandhara and Mathura Buddhist School of Art.

Q61.Charak’ was the famous court physician of-

(a) Harsha

(b) Chandra Gupta Maurya

(c) Ashoka

(d) Kanishka

Answer: (d)

Explanation: Charak was the famous court physician of Kanishka

Q62. ​Who among the following wrote Sanskrit grammar?

​(a) ​Panini ​

(b) ​Manu ​

(c) ​Kalidasa ​

(d) ​Charak

Answer: (a)

Explanation: ​Panini was a Sanskrit grammarian who gave a comprehensive and scientific theory of phonetics, phonology and morphology of the Sanskrit language.

  • Manusmriti is an ancient legal text among the many Dharmasastras of Hinduism. It was written by Manu and was one of the first Sanskrit texts translated during the greatest poet and dramatist in the Sanskrit language. His plays and poetry are primarily based on the Indian Puranas. Among his plays, Abhijnana Sakuntalam, Malvikagna mitram and Kumara Samvawan are important. ​
  • ​Charaka: He was one of the fathers contributors to Ayurveda developed in Ancient India. He is famous for authoring the medical treatise, the Charaka Samhita.

Q63. Who was the author of the Kadambari, a great romantic play?

(a) Banabhatta

(b) Harshavardhana

(c) Baskarvardhana

(d) Bindusara

Answer: (a)

Explanation: Banabhatta was the poet in the court of King Harsha Vardhana. He wrote the famous romantic novel Kadambari, which was completed by his son Bhushanbhatta.

Q64. Who among the following presided over the Buddhist Council held during the reign of Kanishka at Kashmir?

(a) Parsva

(b) Nagarjuna

(c) Sudraka

(d) Vasumitra

Answer: (d) Vasumitra

Explanation: Vasumitra and Ashavaghosh together presided over the fourth council. In this council, Buddhists were divided into Mahayanists and Hinayanists.

Q65. The words “Satyameva Jayate” in the state emblem of India have been adopted from which one of the following? ​

(a) ​Mundaka Upanishad ​

(b) ​Katha Upanishad

​(c) ​Mandukya Upanishad ​

(d) ​Chhandogya Upanishad

Answer: (a)

Explanation: ‘Satyameva Jayate’ is a mantra from the ancient Indian scripture Mundaka Upanishad. Upon independence of India, it was adopted as the national motto of India.

Q66. Which one of the following animals has not represented seals and terracotta art of the Harappa culture?

(a) Cow

(b) Elephant

(c) Rhinoceros

(d) Tiger

Answer: (a) Cow

Explanation: Cow, camel, horse and lion were not depicted on seals. Unicorn (bull) was the animal most commonly represented on the seals.

Q67. Satvahanas minted their coins predominantly in-

(a) Lead

(b) Silver

(c) Gold

(d) Copper

Answer: (a)

Explanation: The Satvahanas predominantly minted their coins in lead. They also used ‘potin’ an alloy of silver and copper to mint coins.

Q68. Who is called the ‘second Ashoka’?

(a) Samudra Gupta

(b) Chandra Gupta Maurya

(c) Kanishka

(d) Harshavardhana

Answer: (c)

Explanation: Kushana King Kanishka is also called “the second Ashoka”. As he was also a great administrator and warrior and worked for the propagation of Buddhism.

Q69. The great law given of ancient time was: ​

(a) ​Vatsyayana ​

(b) ​Ashoka

​(c) ​Manu ​

(d) ​Panini

Answer: (c)

Explanation: Manu-smriti  (Laws of Manu), traditionally, is the most authoritative of the books of the Hindu code  (Dharmashastra)  in India. It is attributed to the legendary first man and lawgiver, Manu. In its present form, it dates from the 1st century BCE. ​​Vatsyayana wrote Kamasutra and Ancient Indian book on sex education.

Q70. Which of the following Upanishad is the earliest? ​

(a) ​Chhandogya Upanishad ​

(b) ​Mundakopnishad ​

(c) ​Brihdaranyak Upanishad ​

(d) ​Taitariya Upanishad

Answer: (c)

Explanation: Brihdaranyak Upanishad is a pre-Buddhist text of the period of 9th Century BCE to 6th Century BCE. ​

  • ​The period of Chhandogya Upanishad is uncertain, but according to some historians, it lies between the 8th Century BCE to 6th Century BCE.

Q71. The capital of Kanishka was:

(a) Puruspura

(b) Benares

(c) Allahabad

(d) Sarnath

Answer: (a)

Explanation: Kanishka – the great ruler of the Kushana empire. His main capital was at Puruspura and another Capital was Mathura.

Q72. The largest number of Rigvedic hymns is devoted to:

​(a) ​Agni ​

(b) ​Indra ​

(c) ​Rudra ​

(d) ​Vishnu

Answer: (b)

Explanation: The Rigvedic hymns are dedicated to various deities, chief of whom are Indra, a heroic god praised for having slain his enemy Vrtra; Agni, the sacrificial fire; and Soma, the sacred potion or the plant it is made from.

Q73.Puruspura’ is the other name for-

(a) Patna

(b) Pataliputra

(c) Peshawar

(d) Punjab

Answer: (c)

Explanation: Peshawar was the other name of ‘Puruspura’ (It became a great centre of Buddhist learning.)

Q74. With which of the following centres of learning, Chanakya the famous teacher of Chandragupta Maurya, was associated?

(a) Taxila

(b) Nalanda

(c) Vikramshila

(d) Vaishali

Answer: (a)

Explanation: Chanakya – the chief minister of Chandragupta Maurya used to teach political science and Economics at the Taxila University. Under the reign of the Mauryan Empire Ashoka, it became an important Buddhist learning centre.

Q75. Banabhatta was the court poet of which emperor?

(a) Vikramaditya

(b) Kumaragupta

(c) Harshvardhana

(d) Kanishka

Answer: (c)

Explanation: Banabhatta was the court poet of king Harshavardhana. He wrote the biography of king Harsha ‘Harsha Charita’ and the famous novel ‘Kadambari’.

Q76. Which of the following were regarded as the hub of Aryan culture during the later Vedic period?

​(a) ​Anga and Magadh ​

(b) ​Kosal and Videha

​(c) ​Kuru and Panchal ​

(d) ​Matsya and Surasena

Answer: (c)

Explanation: The Aryans further moved towards the east in the later Vedic period. The Satapatha Brahmana refers to the expansion of Aryans to the eastern Gangetic plains. During the later Vedic civilization, the Aryans occupied the Upper Gangetic Valley and the Madhyadesa. The Kurus and Panchalas, the Fasas and Usimaras lived in this region. Towards the east, the Aryans penetrated into Kosala, Kasi and Videha, Magadha and Anga.

Q77. Consider the following statements:

  1. The last Mauryan ruler, Brihadratha was assassinated by his commander-in-chief, Pushyamitra Sunga.
  1. The last Sunga king, Devabhuti was assassinated by his Brahmana Minister VasudevaKanva who usurped the throne.
  2. The last ruler of the Kanva dynasty was deposed by the Andhras.

Which of these statements is/are correct?

(a) 1 and 2

(b) Only 2

(c) Only 3

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d)

Explanation: All statements are correct. The last Mauryan ruler, Brihadratha was assassinated by his commander-in-chief, Pushyamitra Sunga in 185 BC. The last ruler of the Kanva dynasty, Susharma was deposed by the Andhra and Satavahana dynasty came into being.

Q78. Nalanda University was a great centre of learning, especially in

(a) Buddhism

(b) Jainism

(c) Vaishnavism

(d) Tantra

Answer: (a)

Explanation: Nalanda University was a great centre of Buddhism in learning.

Q79. During which Gupta King’s reign did the Chinese traveller Fa-Hien visit India?

(a) Chandra Gupta I

(b) Samudra Gupta

(c) Chandra Gupta II

(d) Kumara Gupta

Answer: (c)

Explanation: Fa-Hien (Faxian) was a Buddhist Monk who travelled from China to India on foot during the reign of Chandragupta-II.

Q80. Which of the following statements about the Guptas is NOT true?

(a) They ruled mainly over parts of north and central India

(b) Kingship was hereditary and the throne always went to the eldest son

(c) The judicial system was far more developed than in earlier times

(d) Land taxes increased and taxes on trade and commerce decreased

Answer: (b)

Explanation: Although, the Succession of the throne was primogeniture (the eldest son succeeds his father) sometimes nobles and councillors were also elected kings.

Q81. Which of the following were called Sarthavaha? ​

(a) ​Brokers ​

(b) ​Caravan of traders

​(c) ​Moneylenders ​

(d) ​Pilgrims

Answer: (b)

Explanation: Proper rules of conduct of trade were laid by the head of trade guilds, known as Sarthavaha or Srenipramukha. The rules were called Samay and Srenidharma. Taxila, Pushkalavati, Kapisa and Vidisha prospered as trade centres, under the Indo-Greek rulers.

Q82. India maintained its early cultural contacts and trade links with Southeast Asia across the Bay of Bengal. For this pre-eminence of the early maritime history of the Bay of Bengal, which of the following could be the most convincing explanation/explanations?

(a) As compared to other countries, India had better ship-building technology in ancient and medieval times

(b) The rulers of southern India always patronized traders, Brahmin priests and Buddhist monks in this context.

(c) Monsoon winds across the Bay of Bengal facilitated sea voyages

(d) Both (a) and (b) are convincing explanations in this context

Answer: (d) Both (a) and (b) are convincing explanations in this context

Q83. The Sunga ruler, Agnimitra was the hero of a book written by ​

(a) ​Patanjali ​

(b) ​Asvagosha ​

(c) ​Banabhatta ​

(d) ​Kalidasa

Answer: (d)

Explanation: When Agnimitra was the crown prince, he showed his administrative capability as the governor of the Vidisha region. By virtue of his courage and heroism, he won many battles for the Sunga empire. His heroic deeds seem to have made him a legendary figure. So that Kalidasa, wrote his famous historical drama ‘Malavikagnimitram’, depicting Prince Agnimitra as the hero of the drama.

Q84. Poet Kalidasa lived in the court of-

(a) Chandragupta Maurya

(b) Samudragupta

(c) Chandragupta Vikrmaditya

(d) Harsha

Answer: (c)

Explanation: Poet Kalidasa lived in the court of Chandragupta Vikramaditya. He wrote- Ritusamhara, Meghdoot, Kumar Sambhav, Abhigyan Shakuntalam, Malavikagni Mitra etc.

Q85. Who was the greatest ruler of the Satavahana dynasty? ​

(a) ​Satkarni I ​

(b) ​Hall

​(c) ​Gautamiputra Satkarni ​

(d) ​Yajanasri Satkarni

Answer: (c)

Explanation: The great rulers of the Satavahana dynasty Gautamiputra Satakarni and Sri Yajna Satakarni were able to defeat the foreign invaders like the Western Kshatrapas and stop their expansion.

Q86. Who was the court poet of Harsha?

(a) Bhani

(b) Ravi Kirti

(c) Banabhatta

(d) Vishnu Sharma

Answer: (c)

Explanation: Banabhatta was the court poet (Asthana Kavi) in the court of King Harshavardhana. He wrote the biography of Harsha- ‘Harshacharita’.

Q87. Which of the following dynasties circulated the lead coins? ​

(a) ​Nand

​(b) ​Maurya ​

(c) ​Satavahana

​(d) ​Kushana

Answer: (c)

Explanation: The Satavahana kings mostly used lead as the material for their coins. Next to lead, they used an alloy of silver and copper, called ‘potin’. Most of the Satavahana coins have on one side the figure of an elephant, horse, lion or Chaitya. The other side shows the so-called Ujjain symbol – a cross with four circles at the end of the two crossing lines.

Q88. Who was Rudradaman-I? ​

(a) ​Saka ruler of Ujjain ​

(b) ​Saka ruler of Takshashila ​

(c) ​Saka ruler of Nasika ​

(d) ​Saka ruler of Mathura

Answer: (a) ​

Explanation: Rudradaman I was a Saka ruler from the Western Kshatrapas dynasty. He was the grandson of the celebrated Sah king Chastana. Rudradaman I was instrumental in the decline of the Satavahana Empire.

Q89. Chinese pilgrim who visited India during Harsha Vardhan’s period was-

(a) Fa-Hien

(b) I-Tsang

(c) Nishka

(d) Hiuen Tsang

Answer: (d)

Explanation: Hiuen Tsang visited Nalanda Vishwa Vidyalaya in the reign of Harshavardhan.

Q90. Arrange the following in their chronological order: ​

  1. ​Banja of Gujar – Pratihara dynasty
  2. ​Hindushahi of Punjab and Kabul ​
  3. ​Rashtrakutas of Deccan ​
  4. ​Chalukya dynasty of Kalyani ​

(a) ​1 2 3 4

​(b) ​4 1 2 3 ​

(c) ​2 3 1 4 ​

(d) ​3 1 2 4

Answer: (d)

Explanation: The correct chronological order is:

​​Rashtrakutas of Deccan, Banja of Gujar—Pratihara dynasty, Hindushahi of Punjab and Kabul, Chalukya dynasty of Kalyani. ​​Rashtrakuta dynasty, the Hindu dynasty that ruled the Deccan and neighbouring areas of India from about 755 to 975 CE.

Gurjara—Pratihara dynasty, either of two dynasties of medieval Hindu India. The line of Harichandra ruled in Mandor, Marwar  (Jodhpur, Rajasthan), during the 6th to 9th centuries CE, generally with feudatory status. The line of Nagabhata ruled first at Ujjain and later at Kannauj during the 8th to 11th centuries.

The Chalukya dynasty was a powerful Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th century CE. During this period, they ruled as three related, but individual dynasties. The earliest dynasty, known as the “Badami Chalukyas”, ruled from their capital Vatapi  (modern Badami)  from the middle of the 6th century. Pulakesin II  (609 – 642)  CE. After the death of Pulakesin II, the Eastern Chalukyas became an independent kingdom in the eastern Deccan.

Q91. The Sangam text Tolkappiyam is work on ​

(a) ​Astronomy

​(b) ​Grammar ​

(c) ​Music

​(d) ​Medicine

Answer: (b)

Explanation: ​The Tolkappiyam is a work on the grammar of the Tamil language and the earliest extant work of Tamil literature written by Tholkappiyar.

Q92. Gupta Dynasty was famous for-

(a) Art and architecture

(b) Imperialism

(c) Revenue and land reform

(d) None of these

Answer: (a)

Explanation: The Gupta period is called ‘The Golden Age of India’ as there was no progress made in the field of science, mathematics, art, literature and philosophy.

Q93. Who was the first ruler of the Gupta dynasty to assume the title of ‘Maharajadhiraja? ​

(a) ​Srigupta ​

(b) ​Chandragupta I

​(c) ​Samudragupta ​

(d) ​Chandragupta II

Answer: (b)

Explanation: Chandragupta I was the first ruler of the Gupta dynasty to assume the title of ‘Maharajadhiraja’ Chandragupta I assumed the high-sounding title of Maharajadhiraja (Great King of Kings). Conceding the importance of his wife, Chandragupta issued gold coins in the joint names of himself, his queen Kumaradevi and the Lichchhavi nation. Emboldened by his success, he established a new era.

Q94. Who has complimented Samudragupta as the ‘Indian Napoleon’?

​(a) ​Radhakumud Mukherji ​

(b) ​A. V.  Smith ​

(c) ​R. N.  Dandekar ​

(d) ​R. C.  Majumdar

Answer: (b)

Explanation: ​AV Smith complimented Samudragupta as the Indian Napoleon. Samudragupta embarked upon a policy of conquest. In fact, Digvijay became the ultimate call of his life. For his military achievements, he has been aptly complemented by the historian AV Smith as the Indian Napoleon. He has described Samudragupta as the Hero of Hundred Battles.

Q95. The Gupta king who assumed the title of ‘Vikramaditya’ was-

(a) Skandagupta

(b) Samudragupta

(c) Chandragupta – II

(d) Kumaragupta

Answer: (c)

Explanation: Chandragupta-II was one of the prominent Gupta emperors. He reigned between 380 AD – 415 AD. He was the first Gupta ruler who assumed the title of ‘Vikramaditya’ and ‘Sakari’.

Q96. With reference to the scientific progress of ancient India, which of the statements given below are correct?

  1. Different kinds of specialized surgical instruments were in common use by the 1st century AD.
  2. Transplant of internal organs in the human body had begun by the beginning of the 3rd century AD.
  3. The concept of sine of an angle was known in the 5th century AD.
  4. The concept of cyclic quadrilaterals was known in the 7th century AD.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 3 and 4 only

(c) 1, 3 and 4 only

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Answer: (c)

Q97. The Huns invaded India during the reign of

​(a) ​Chandragupta II ​

(b) ​Kumargupta- I ​

(c) ​Skandgupta ​

(d) ​Budhagupta

Answer: (c)

Explanation: The Hunas invaded India during the reign of Skandgupta. Hunas were Iranian-speaking Xionite tribes who, via Khyber Pass, entered India at the end of the 5th or early 6th century and were defeated by the Hindu Gupta Empire. In its farthest geographical extent in India, the Huna Empire covered the region up to Malwa in central India.

Q98. Match List-I and List-II and select the correct answer from the codes given below the lists:

A.  Fahien1.  Indian had no sense of history
B.  Alberuni2.  There was no provision of death sentence
C.  Heiun Tsang3.  Indian yield more than fairness required

​Codes: A B C

(a)        2 1 3

(b)       1 2 3

(c)        3 2 1

(d)       1 3 2

Answer: (a) ​

Explanation: Fa-Hien – there was no provision of a death sentence.

​​Alberuni — Indians had no sense of history.

​​Hein-Tsang — Indian yield more than fairness required. ​​

Both Fa-Hien and Hiuen Tsang had seen several stone structures built by Ashoka in Pataliputra. These structures were intact when Fa-Hien stayed in the city for three years to learn Sanskrit during 399 and 415 AD.

Alberuni (973 – 1048 and Firdausi), “commissioned” by Mahmud of Ghazni to produce his monumental commentary on Indian philosophy and culture Kitab fi tahqiq ma li’l-hind. “In his search for pure knowledge, he is undoubtedly one of the greatest minds in Islamic history.” RomilaThapar calls him “perhaps the finest intellect of central Asia. His observations on Indian conditions, systems of knowledge, social norms, religion … are probably the most incisive made by any visitor to India.

Q99. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer from the codes given below the lists:

List-I(Authors)List-II (Historical Kavyas)
A.  Hemachandra1.  Dvyasraya Kavya
B.  Jayanka2.  Navasahshank Charita
C.  Padmagupta3.  Prithviraja Vijaya
D.  Sandhyakar Nandi4.  Rama Charita

​Codes: A B C D

(a)        1 3 2 4

(b)        2 4 3 1

(c)         3 1 4 2

(d)        4 2 1 3

Answer: (a)

Explanation: The correct match-list of authors and Kavyas is:

List-I(Authors)List-II (Historical Kavyas)
A.  HemachandraDvyasraya Kavya
B.  JayankaPrithviraj Vijaya
C.  PadmaguptaNavasahshank Charita
D.  Sandhyakar NandiRama Charita

Samrat Hemachandra Vikramaditya (also known as Hemu Vikramaditya, Raja Vikramaditya or simply Hemu)   (1501 – 5 November 1556)  was a Hindu emperor of north India during the sixteenth century AD.

The Prithviraj Vijay is a contemporary account of the 12th century the Kingdom of Ajmer ruled by the Chauhan clan. In 1192, outlying portions of the kingdom fell to invading Turks, and the capital Ajmer later in 1195, but other parts under the Chauhan Rajaputras continued to resist the invaders for more than a century. The text helps to dispel many myths from that period that have developed in later writings, for example, the establishment of a Sufi shrine in Ajmer. He was the grandson of Pinaka Nandi and the son of Prajapati Nandi, the Sandhi-Vigrahika  (minister of peace and war)  of the Pala emperor Ramapala. He wrote the epic poem Ramacharitam.

Q100. Mention the centre of the Roman trade during the Sangam Age-

(a) Madurai

(b) Arikamedu

(c) Poompuhar

(d) Musiri

Answer: (d)

Explanation: Greeks and Romans are referred to as Yavanas in Sangam literature. There was a lot of export activity (Spices, Pearls, Medicinal Plants) From Tamil to Greece and Rome Musiri, Thondi, Puhar, Kumari, Konkai were the important Sea-ports.

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