Q1. REDD-plus Program is concerned with which of the following?
(a) Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)
(b) Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
(c) Millennium Development Goals (MDG)
(d) Earth Summit
Explanation: Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD-plus) is a mechanism developed by Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. It creates a financial value for the carbon stored in forests by offering incentives for developing countries to reduce emissions from forested lands and invest in low-carbon paths to sustainable development. Developing countries would receive results-based payments for results-based actions.
Q2. The Ramsar convention is associated with the conservation of
Explanation: The Convention on Wetlands is known as Ramsar Convention. The Convention was named after the Iranian city of Ramsar where this intergovernmental treaty was adopted in 1971. The treaty came into force in 1975. Ramsar convention provides the framework for national action and international cooperation for the conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources.
Q3. The concept of greenhouse gases was postulated by
(a) C. C. Park
(b) J. N. N. Jeffers
(c) Joseph Fourier
(d) L. Zobler
Explanation: Joseph Fourier was a French mathematician and physicist. He is credited with the discovery of the Greenhouse Effect. In 1827, he suggested that the Earth’s atmosphere might act as an insulator and retain the heat. Joseph Fourier is best remembered for his work on the flow of heat in the form of Fourier’s law.
Q4. Which of the organizations is mainly related to environmental planning?
Explanation: NEERI stands for National Environmental Engineering Research Institute which is run by the Government of India It is situated in Nagpur and was established in 1958. It has 5 laboratories at Kolkata, Hyderabad, Delhi, Chennai, Mumbai.
Q5. Which one of the following plants are used for green manuring in India?
Explanation: Green manure is manure obtained from unrecompensed green plant material. Sunn hemp is one of the most important green manure crops along with dhaincha, cluster beans, Sesbaniarostrata, and others.
Q6. Consider the following
Oxides of Nitrogen
Oxides of Sulphur
Which of the above is/are the emission/emissions from coal combustion at thermal power plants?
(a) Only 1
(b) 2 and 3
(c) 1 and 3
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Explanation: Coal combustion at thermal power plants emits Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, Sulphur Dioxide, Nitrogen Dioxide, and particulate matter.
Q7. Sustainable development is a case of intergenerational sensibility in respect of the use of
(a) Natural resources
(b) Material resources
(c) Industrial resources
(d) Social resources
Explanation: Sustainable development is the type of development that fulfills the criteria of meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
Q8. The United Nations Convention on climate change ratified by more than 50 countries became effective on
(a) March 21, 1994
(b) May 21, 1995
(c) June 21, 1996
(d) June 21, 1999
Explanation: The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) entered into force on March 21, 1994. The Convention sets an ultimate objective of stabilizing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases at a safe level.
Q9. Which is the first national park of India?
(a) Jim Corbett National Park
(b) Similipal National Park
(c) Dachigam National Park
(d) Hazaribagh National Park
Explanation: Earlier known as Hailey National Park, Jim Corbett National Park got established in 1936 in Nainital to protect the Bengal tiger.
Q10. Polar bears are carnivores and prey on many arctic birds and fishes. However, under natural conditions, no one found polar bears predating any penguin. This is because
(a) Penguins have chemical substances in their muscles which is toxic to polar bears
(b) Penguins are gregarious and always move in groups. Therefore, a polar bear cannot approach them
(c) Polar bears and penguins never coexist under natural conditions.
The former lives in the North Pole while the latter lives in the South Pole
(d) Polar bears and penguins display symbiotic relationships and they help each other for their existence in the ice-cold ecosystem
Explanation:Polar bears and penguins never coexist under natural conditions. Polar bears live in the North Pole while the Penguin lives in the South Pole.
Q11. Which of the following state has the highest percentage of forest cover?
(a) Jammu and Kashmir
Explanation: Mizoram has 90% (approx) of its area under forest which is the highest percentage-wise. It is nearly followed by Lakshadweep.
Q12. Consider the following protected areas:
Which of the above are declared Tiger Reserves?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 1, 3, and 4 only
(c) 2, 3, and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
Explanation: Bandipur National Park, a tiger reserve is located in the south Indian state of Karnataka.
Manas National Park or Manas Wildlife Sanctuary is a National Park, UNESCO Natural World Heritage site, a Project Tiger Reserve, an Elephant Reserve, and a Biosphere Reserve in Assam.
The Sundarban National Park is a National Park, Tiger Reserve, and a Biosphere Reserve in India. It is a part of the Sundarbans on the Ganges Delta of India and Bangladesh.
Bhitarkanika National Park is a national park located in the Kendrapara District Odisha, which is not specifically for Tiger reserve.
Q13. Chipko movement was basically against
(a) Water pollution
(b) Noise pollution
(d) Cultural pollution
Explanation: Chipko Movement was an ecological movement by rural villagers in India in the 1970s aimed at protecting trees and forests slated against deforestation/cutting of trees.
Q14. Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary is located in which state?
Explanation: Bharatpur bird sanctuary is located in Rajasthan state & bordering the state of Uttar Pradesh. Also known as Keoladeo Ghana Bird Sanctuary or Keoladeo National Park. Being a World Heritage Site it is famous for migratory Siberian Cranes.
Q15. The Red Data Books published by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) contains lists of
Endemic plant and animal species are present in the biodiversity hotspots.
Threatened plant and animal species.
Protected sites for the conservation of nature and natural resources in various countries.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
(a) 1 and 3
(b) 2 only
(c) 3 only
(d) 2 and 3
Explanation: The IUCN Red List of threatened species or the Red Data Book is the state document established for documenting rare and endangered species of animals, plants, and fungi existing within the territory of the state or country.
Q16. The cycling of elements in an ecosystem is called
(a) Chemical cycles
(b) Biogeochemical cycles
(c) Geological cycles
(d) Geochemical cycles
Explanation: A biogeochemical cycle is a pathway through which a chemical element moves through the biotic and the abiotic factors of an ecosystem. It includes living factors like living organisms and non-living factors such as rocks, air, water, chemicals, etc.
Q17. Biodiversity forms the basis for human existence in the following ways:
Prevention of soil erosion
Recycling of waste
Pollination of crops
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
(a) 1, 2, and 3 only
(b) 2, 3, and 4 only
(c) 1 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
Explanation: Biological diversity helps in the formation and maintenance of soil structure and the retention of moisture and nutrient levels. Trees, on the other hand, lower the water table and remove deposited salt from the upper soil horizons.
Q18. The orderly sequence of change in the vegetation of an area over time is described as
(c) Trophic level
Explanation: The orderly sequence of change in the vegetation of an area over time is described as succession or ecological succession. It is a phenomenon or process by which an ecological community undergoes more or less orderly and predictable changes following a disturbance or the initial colonization of a new habitat.
Q19. The Ozone layer restricts
(a) Visible light
(b) Infrared radiation
(c) X-rays and Gamma rays
(d) Ultraviolet radiation
Explanation: The Ozone layer restricts Ultraviolet radiation (UV rays). Overexposure to UV rays can cause sunburn and skin cancer.
Q20. This is the only sanctuary where Kashmiri Deer are found?
Explanation: Dachigam National Park is located near Srinagar in Jammu & Kashmir. It has an area of 141km 2 Dachigam is ‘Das gaam’ meaning ‘10 villages’. It is famous for KashmirStag also known as hangul.
Q21. Consider the following statements
The Pacific salmon fish uses the Earth’s magnetic field to find their way
Machli, Queen Mother of the tiger dynasty was found in the Ranthambhore National Park, India.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) None of these
Explanation: It is believed that other sea creatures such as turtles, sharks, and whales may also use Earth’s magnetic field to roam the oceans.
The 17-year-old Machli is the longest living wild tigress in the world, besides being the most photographed big cat. The tigress was identified as T-16. Machli had survived in the dense forest by hunting her own prey despite her advanced age.
Q22. The amount of energy as it passes on from one trophic level to another in an ecosystem
(c) remains constant
(d) None of these
Explanation: The amount of energy in an ecosystem decreases as it passes from one trophic level to another. For example, in a food chain not 100 per cent of energy is transferred from one trophic level to the other as only a fraction of it is transferred and the rest is lost to the atmosphere.
Q23. Which one of the following pairs is not correctly matched?
(a) Kyoto Protocol — Carbon Trading
(b) Environmental impact assessment — Leopold Matrix
(c) The year without summer — 1816
(d) Milankovich Theory — on the Origin of Species
Explanation: The Milankovitch theory is an explanation of long-term climate change. The book ‘On the Origin of Species was written by Charles Darwin, published on 24 November 1859.
Q24. Which of the following is the largest BiosphereReserve of India?
(b) Nanda Devi
(d) Gulf of mannar
Explanation: This Biosphere Reserve is also known as the Gulf of Mannar Marine National Park. It is the largest biosphere reserve in India. It is located between India & the Sri Lankan Indian Ocean as shallow water bodies. A rare species of dugong (Sea cow) is found here.
Q25. Which of the following is a correct statement about the Ozone?
(a) Ozone in the troposphere is good for breathing
(b) Ozone in the troposphere is not good for breathing
(c) Ozone is present only in the troposphere.
(d) All of the above
Explanation: Ozone present in the stratosphere, acts as a protection from U.V. light. Without this protective shield, all life would be more susceptible to cancer, impaired immunity, and other health issues. Whereas the ozone present in the troposphere, which is close to the earth’s surface, can damage our lungs. Hence it is not good for breathing.