Environment and Biodiversity MCQ Questions and Answer


Environment and Biodiversity MCQ Questions and Answer


Q26. Heri Tiera Fomes (Sundari tree) is a type of which of the following plants?

(a) Tidal Forest

(b) Thorn Forest

(c) Mountain Forest

(d) Taiga Forest

Answer: (a)

Explanation: Heritiera Fomes (Sundari tree) is a type of mangrove tree mostly found in the Sundarban delta of the Ganga Brahmaputra rivers. It constitutes over 70% of the forest in this area.

Q27. The steps taken by the Government of India for the conversion of endangered species are ​

  1. ​The Central Government has enacted the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 for the protection of wildlife including birds. ​
  2. ​Wetland (Conservation and Management) Rules 2010 have been framed for the protection of wetlands, in the States, which are habitats of birds. ​
  3. ​Wildlife Crime Control Bureau has been established for the control of illegal trade in wildlife, including endangered species of birds and their parts and products. ​
  4. ​The Centrally Sponsored Scheme of National Plan for Conservation of Aquatic Eco-System also provides assistance to the States for management of wetlands including Ramsar sites in the country.

​Select the answer from the codes given below-

​(a) ​1, 2, and 3

​(b) ​2, 3, and 4

​(c) ​1, 3, and 4 ​

(d) ​All of the above

Answer: (d)

Explanation:​For the conservation of endangered species Wildlife Crime Control Bureau has been established for the control of illegal trade in wildlife, including endangered species of birds and their parts and products. Research and monitoring activities on birds are promoted by the Government through reputed research organizations. Wildlife Institute of India, Bombay Natural History Society, and Salim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History are some of the research organizations undertaking research on the conservation of birds. The Indian government has banned the veterinary use of diclofenac drugs that has caused a rapid decline in the vulture population across the Indian Subcontinent. Conservation Breeding Programmes to conserve these vulture species have been initiated at Pinjore (Haryana), Buxa (West Bengal), and Rani, Guwahati (Assam) by the Bombay Natural History Society.

Q28. Which was the first scheme of “Biosphere Reserve Areas”?

(a) Sundarban Biosphere Reserve

(b) Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve

(c) Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve

(d)Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve

Answer: (b)

Explanation:Biosphere Reserve Areas’ are the regions established by the Indian government as ‘Biosphere Reserve’ in accordance with IUCN Category-V Protected areas.

These are larger areas of natural habitat including one or more National Parks accompanied by buffer zones. Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve was the first of this kind.

Q29. Which of the following are the new species of freshwater catfish discovered in the Idukki and Pathanamthitta districts of Kerala in November 2013?

  1. Horabagrusmelanosoma ​
  2. ​Mystusheoki ​
  3. ​Mystusindicus ​
  4. ​Mystusmiami

​Select the answers from the codes given below: ​

(a) ​1 only

​(b) ​1 and 2 only ​

(c) ​1, 2, and 3 only ​

(d) ​All of the above

Answer: (c)

Explanation:​ Along with the first 3 species Mystusmenoni species of Catfish were discovered from the Manimala river. Catfish are freshwater, bottom-dwelling fish. Unlike other fish, they have no scales and are smooth-skinned. They are known for growing whiskers, called “barbels,” at some point during their lifespan. Catfish use their barbels as feelers as they swim along the bottom of the various bodies of water in which they live. There are 2,900 species of catfish worldwide. They range in size from 1.5 to 2 inches to more than 8 feet in length.

Q30. Consider the following statements:

Assertion (A): Plants are called primary producers.  ​

Reason (R): Plants produce their food themselves through the process of photosynthesis.

​Select the correct answer from the codes given below: ​

(a) ​Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.  ​

(b) ​Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.  ​

(c) ​A is true but R is false.

​(d) ​A is false but R is true.

Answer: (a)

Explanation:​ Plants are called primary producers because they produce their food themselves through the process of photosynthesis.

Q31. Earlier there was a balance between the formation and destruction of the Ozone layer but after the release of varieties of harmful substances into the atmosphere, this balance has been disturbed.  Now the rate of destruction is higher than the rate of formation of the Ozone layer which is causing the widening of the Ozone hole.  CFC (Chlorofluorocarbons) is one of the sources responsible for causing a hole in the Ozone layer, which of the following statement is correct about the CFC: ​

  1. ​CFC is made of chlorine, fluorine, and carbon ​
  2. ​CFC is released from the refrigerant, foams in plastic manufacturing, etc ​
  3. ​Refrigerant is the major source of CFC ​

(a) ​1 only ​

(b) ​2 only ​

(c) ​1 and 2 only ​

(d) ​1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d)

Explanation:​It has been proved that CFCs are a major cause of the depletion of the earth’s stratospheric ozone layer and contribute to the greenhouse effect. ​​Large quantities of CFCs are used as refrigerants in a number of refrigerating and air conditioning systems. Though the refrigerant moves in a closed cycle, there are lots of leakages that escape the atmosphere and cause the destruction of the ozone layer. CFCs have exceptionally long atmospheric life, which can extend up to 100 years.

Q32. Which is the longest National Highway in India?

(a) NH4

(b) NH44

(c) NH10

(d) NH5

Answer: (b)

Explanation: NH44 with a length of about 3,745 km is the longest national highway in India. Although NH7 running over2,369 km is the longest “Single” national highway in India.NH44 is a merger of different national highways and runs from Srinagar to Kanyakumari.

Q33. ​Flea beetles alone are unlikely to eliminate all of the leafy spurges in a region.  Instead, the number of leafy spurge plants and the number of flea beetles in a particular community may stabilize.  At this point, the leafy spurge and flea beetle populations: ​

(a) ​Have exhibited exponential growth followed by a crash ​

(b) ​Have experienced constant growth

​(c) ​Are still experiencing exponential growth

​(d) ​Are experiencing environmental resistance

Answer: (d)

Explanation:​The flea beetles have proved to be an effective means of controlling leafy spurge. The flea beetles typically take 3-5 years to establish and impact leafy spurge infestations.

Q34. The word ‘Ecology’ was coined in 1866 by ​

(a) ​Charles Darwin

​(b) ​Robert Whittaker ​

(c) ​Arthur Tansley

​(d) ​Ernst Haeckel

Answer: (d)​

Explanation: The term ecology was coined in 1866 by, Ernst Haeckel from the Greek word “Oikos” meaning house and “logos” meaning study.

Q35. Gujarat is the largest producer of salt in India because

(a) It has extensive dry coast

(b) Its coastal waters are very saline

(c) It has extensive shallow

(d) Besides producing salt from saline water, it has reserves of rock salt

Answer: (a)

Explanation: Gujarat lies in a subtropical high-pressure zone towards west India. It is characterized by semi-arid & arid conditions. The coastal zone of the state remains dry during most part of the year. Hence, salt production is high.

Q36. The Delhi Metro is the first-ever railway system in the world to be awarded the prestigious Gold Standard Foundation (GSF) certification standard for ​

(a) ​Providing security to the people

​(b) ​Using the energy efficiently

​(c) ​Carrying the largest number of passengers ​

(d) ​All of the above

Answer: (b)

Explanation:​GSF standard certification is a globally accepted certification standard for carbon mitigation projects. The Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) registered for the certification standard for its energy efficiency measures undertaken in 51 stations in Phase II of the DMRC Project. The energy efficiency measures were primarily undertaken in the heating, venting, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, lighting systems, and other energy-efficient measures of station buildings; the measures adopted in the HVAC system resulted in a reduction in electrical energy consumption.

Q37. The maximum biodiversity is found in ​

(a) ​Tropical rain forests ​

(b) ​Temperate forests ​

(c) ​Coniferous forests

(d) ​Arctic forests

Answer: (a)​

Explanation: The maximum diversity is found in tropical rain forests. Tropical forests are some of the richest areas on Earth. About 80% of the world’s documented species can be found in tropical rainforests.

Q38. As an ecosystem, wetlands are useful for which of the following? ​

(a) ​For nutrient recovery and cycling ​

(b) ​For releasing heavy metals through absorption by plants.  ​

(c) ​They maintain the rivers and control floods.  ​

(d) ​All the above

Answer: (d)

Explanation:​As an ecosystem, wetlands are useful for nutrient recovery and cycling, releasing heavy metals through absorption by plants. They also control and maintain floods.

Q39. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer from the codes given below:

A.  Biodiversity1.  G. Tansley
B.  Wildlife2.  E. O.  Wilson
C.  Ecosystem3.  E.  Haeckel
D.  Ecology4.  W. T. Hornaday

Codes: A B C D

(a) ​       2 4 3 1

(b) ​      2 4 1 3

(c) ​       4 2 3 1

(d) ​      4 2 1 3

Answer: (b)​

Explanation: The concept of biodiversity was propounded by E.O. Wilson. The concept of wildlife was proposed by W. Hornaday. The concept of ecosystem is given by G. Tansley. The concept of Ecology was given by E. Haeckel.

Q40. Consider the following statements about the Ozone Hole

​(I) ​Ozone formation and destruction keep on happening

​(II) ​Ozone destruction rate is higher than its formation rate

​(III) ​Ozone destruction rate is equal to its formation rate ​

Which of the above statements is/ are true? ​

(a) ​(I) only ​

(b) ​(I) and (II) Only ​

(c) ​(I) and (III)  ​

(d) ​(III) Only

Answer: ​(b)

Explanation: ​In a pollution-free stratosphere, the production and destruction of ozone are in balance and hence the concentration of O3 remains constant with time. When CFCs are released into the lower troposphere, they diffuse up into the stratosphere since their lifetime is 50-100 years when CFCs reach the middle stratosphere; UV radiation liberates the chlorine atom.

CFC + UV → Cl ​​

Cl is then able to destroy as many as 100,000 O3 molecules.

Q41. Which State Possesses the biggest coal reserve?

(a) Bihar

(b) Jharkhand

(c) Madhya Pradesh

(d) Odisha

Answer: (b)

Explanation: Biggest coal reserve lies in Jharkhand. As most of the Chhota Nagpur Region lies in this state. It comprises big coal fields in Damodar Valley.

Q42. Which one among the following is not an endangered bird of India?

​(a) ​White-bellied Heron

​(b) ​Great Indian Bustard

​(c) ​Forest Owlet ​

(d) ​Mallard

Answer: (d)​

Explanation: White-bellied Heron, Great Indian Bustard, and Forest Owlet are among the endangered birds of India. Mallard is not an endangered bird in India.

Q43. Consider the following kinds of organisms and identify the pollinating agent/agents.

​(a) ​Bat and Bee but not a bird

​(c) ​Bee, bat, and birds

​(c) ​Hummingbird but not bee ​

(d) ​Wind, bee, bat, birds.

Answer: (d)

Explanation: ​Bees, bats, and birds are biotic pollinating agents. The wind is also an agent of pollination but is an abiotic agent.

Q44. Where has the Geological Survey of India located most of India’s Chromite?

(a) Cuttack

(b) Singhbhum

(c) Manipur

(d) Hubli

Answer: (a)

Explanation: In India, most of the chromate deposits (about 93%) are located in the Sukinda Valley of Cuttack district in Odisha.

Q45. With reference to ‘Global Climate Change Alliance’, which of the following statements is/are correct?

  1. ​It is an initiative of the European Union.  ​
  2. ​It provides technical and financial support to targeted developing countries to integrate climate change into their development policies and budgets. ​
  3. ​It is coordinated by World Resources Institute (WRI) and World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD). ​

Select the correct answer using the code given below: ​

(a) ​1 and 2 only

​(b) ​3 only ​

(c) ​2 and 3 only

​(d) ​1, 2 and 3

Answer: (a)​

Explanation: As per their organizations’ “About us” page: ​​EuropeAid (DG for International Cooperation and Development) drives and oversees the overall implementation of the GCCA. So third statement is wrong. By elimination, we are left with “A”.

Q46. How does National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) help in protecting Indian agriculture? ​

  1. ​NBA checks the biopiracy and protects the indigenous and traditional genetic resources. ​
  2. ​National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) directly monitors and supervises the scientific research on genetic modification of crop plants.
  3. ​Application for Intellectual Property Rights related to genetic/biological resources cannot be made without the approval of the NBA.  ​

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

​(a) ​1 only ​

(b) ​1 and 2 only ​

(c) ​1 and 3 only ​

(d) ​1, 2 and 3

Answer: (c)​

Explanation: The National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) an autonomous body is established in 2003 to implement India’s Biological Diversity Act (2002).

Q47. Eutrophication in the Chesapeake Bay along the eastern edge of Maryland has resulted in low oxygen levels in the water and alternation of food webs.  The cause of this eutrophication appears to be pollution that contains high levels of: ​

(a) ​Nitrogen and carbon

​(b) ​Nitrogen and phosphorus

​(c) ​Carbon and phosphorus ​

(d) ​Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus

Answer: (b)​

Explanation: Scientists have recognized that nutrient enrichment was a threat to the bay. In 1987 formal goals were established to reduce nitrogen and phosphorous inputs to the bay from both point and non-point sources.

Q48. Consider the following statements:

​1. ​Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC) to Reduce Short-Lived Climate Pollutants is a unique initiative of the G20 group of countries.

​2. ​The CCAC focuses on methane, black carbon, and hydrofluorocarbons.

​Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

​(a) ​1 only

​(b) ​2 only

​(c) ​Both 1 and 2 ​

(d) ​Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b)​

Explanation: As per the timeline given on their official “About Us” page: CCAC was formed in 2012 by UNEP and Ghana, Bangladesh, etc. countries. So the first statement is wrong. The second statement is right-they focus on Short-Lived Climate Pollutants such as methane, black carbon, and hydrofluorocarbons.

Q49. What is the ecological system integrating all living beings and their relationships?

(a) Total Wild Life

(b) Biosphere

(c) Lithosphere

(d) Hydrosphere

Answer: (b)

Explanation: Biosphere is the zone in which life thrives i.e. all biological processes occur in this zone. The 3 spheres of life i.e. atmosphere + hydrosphere + lithosphere all combine to form a biosphere.

Q50. Which of the following are the incorrect statements about ‘Keystone species’.

  1. ​​Keystone species are small-sized plants and organisms which have a large effect on the environment.  ​
  2. ​Keystone species play a critical role in maintaining the structure of an ecological community.
  3. ​Keystone species do not generally affect other organisms.

​(a) ​1 and 2 ​

(b) ​2 and 3 ​

(c) ​1 and 3

​(d) ​All are correct

Answer: (c)​

Explanation: Keystone species are not necessarily small-sized though they greatly affect the environment. They play a very critical role in maintaining the structure of an ecological community by affecting many other organisms. An ecosystem may experience a dramatic shift if a keystone species is removed, even though that species may be a small part of the ecosystem by measures of biomass or productivity.

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