GS Paper-3 Syllabus for UPSC Main Exam
(Technology, Economic Development, Bio-diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management)
- Indian Economy and issues relating to Planning, Mobilization of Resources, Growth, Development and Employment.
- Inclusive Growth and issues arising from it.
- Government Budgeting.
- Major Crops – Cropping Patterns in various parts of the country, – Different Types of Irrigation and Irrigation Systems; Storage, Transport and Marketing of Agricultural Produce and Issues and Related Constraints; E-technology in the aid of farmers.
- Issues related to Direct and Indirect Farm Subsidies and Minimum Support Prices; Public Distribution System – Objectives, Functioning, Limitations, Revamping; Issues of Buffer Stocks and Food Security; Technology Missions; Economics of Animal-Rearing.
- Food Processing and Related Industries in India- Scope’ and Significance, Location, Upstream and Downstream Requirements, Supply Chain Management.
- Land Reforms in India.
- Effects of Liberalization on the Economy, Changes in Industrial Policy and their Effects on Industrial Growth.
- Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.
- Investment Models.
- Science and Technology- Developments and their Applications and Effects in Everyday Life.
- Achievements of Indians in Science & Technology; Indigenization of Technology and Developing New Technology.
- Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, Robotics, Nano-technology, Bio-technology and issues relating to Intellectual Property Rights.
- Conservation, Environmental Pollution and Degradation, Environmental Impact Assessment.
- Disaster and Disaster Management.
- Linkages between Development and Spread of Extremism.
- Role of External State and Non-state Actors in creating challenges to Internal Security.
- Challenges to Internal Security through Communication Networks, Role of Media and Social Networking Sites in Internal Security Challenges, Basics of Cyber Security; Money-Laundering and its prevention.
- Security Challenges and their Management in Border Areas – Linkages of Organized Crime with Terrorism.
- Various Security Forces and Agencies and their Mandate.
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GS Paper-3 Syllabus
1.1. Developments & their Applications & Effects in Everyday Life
(a) Chemicals in Food
- Artificial Sweetening Agents
- Food Preservatives
- Neurologically Active Drugs
- Antiseptic and Disinfectant
- Anti-Fertility Drugs, etc.
(c) Cleansing Agents
- Synthetic detergents
(e) Water Softener
(f) Water Purification/Disinfection
(g) Microwave Oven, etc.
1.2. Achievements of Indians in Science & Technology
- Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman
- Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose
- Satyendra Nath Bose
- Meghnad Saha
- Homi Jehangir Bhabha
- Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
- P.J. Abdul Kalam
- Vikram Sarabhai
- Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya
- Har Gobind Khorana
- Tessy Thomas
- N.R. Rao
1.3. Indignation of Technology & Developing New Technology
- IT & Computers
1.4. Awareness in Different Fields
- IT & Computers
1.5. Issues Relating to Intellectual Property Rights
- Need for Intellectual Property Rights
- Types of IPR
- IPR Regime in India
- International Agreements Related to IPRs
- Geographical Indicators
- Recent Issues – Ever greening, Compulsory Licensing, Prominent Cases etc.
2. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
2.1. Indian Economy & Issues Relating to Planning, Mobilization of Resources, Growth, Development & Employment
- Meaning of Planning
- Need for Planning in Economic Development
- Imperative Vs. Indicative Vs. Structural Planning
- Objectives of Planning
- Indian Planning History
- Techniques of Indian Planning
- Achievements & Failures of Indian Planning
- Shortcomings of Planning in India
- NITI Aayog Vs. Planning Commission
(b) Mobilization of Resources
- Types of Resources – Financial, Human, Natural etc.
- Need for Resource Mobilization
- Role of Savings & Investment
- Government Resources – Tax & Non-Tax ( or Fiscal & Monetary Policy)
- Banking Sector & NBFCs
- Capital Market
- External Sources – FDI, ODA etc.
- Public Borrowing & Management of Public Debt
- Challenges in Mobilizing Resources for Development
- Steps That Can Be Taken
(c) Growth & Development
- Meaning of Development & Growth
- Difference between Development & Growth
- Determinants of Growth & Development
- Importance & Limitations of Economic Growth
- Jobless Growth
- Pro-Poor Growth
- Balanced & Unbalanced Growth
- Dimensions of Development
- Measurement & Indicators of Development
- Approaches to Development:
- Market-Based Approach
- Role of State and Planned Approach
- Mixed Economy Approach
- Challenges to Development & Growth
- Nature – Rural vs. Urban, Formal Vs. Informal
- Terms Related to Employment – Labor Force Participation Rate, Employment Rate, Working Age Population etc.
- Sectoral Distribution of Employment
- Quality of Employment
- Causes of Lack of Employment
- Restructuring of Workforce
- Government Initiatives for Generating Employment
2.2. Inclusive Growth & Issues Arising From It
- What is Inclusive Growth?
- Elements of Inclusive Growth
- Need for Inclusive Growth
- Indicators of Inclusive Growth
- Challenges in Achieving Inclusive Growth in India
- 12thFYP & Inclusive Growth
2.3. Government Budgeting
(a) Need for Government Budgeting
(b) Components of the Government Budget
- Revenue Account – Revenue Receipts & Revenue Expenditure
- Capital Account – Capital Receipts & Capital Expenditure
(c) Changes in Budgetary Process in 2017
(d) Measures of Government Deficit
- Revenue Deficit
- Fiscal Deficit
- Primary Deficit
(e) Fiscal Policy
(f) Deficit Reduction
(g) FRBM Act
(h) Other Types of Budgets – Outcome, Zero-Based, etc.
2.4. Land Reforms in India
- Rationale for Land Reforms
- Components of Land Reforms
- Impact of Land Reforms
- Problems in Implementation of Land Reforms
- Success of Land Reforms
- Recent Initiatives – Land Leasing, Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation & Resettlement Act, etc.
2.5. Effects of Liberalization on the Economy
- Phase of Liberalization
- Impact on Different Sectors of the Economy
2.6. Changes In Industrial Policy & their Effects on Industrial Growth
- Industrial Policy Before 1991
- Industrial Policy After 1991
- Phases of Industrial Growth
- Linkage Between Economic Reforms and Economic Outcomes
- Weaknesses and Failures of Industrial Policies
- National Manufacturing Policy
- Make in India
2.8. Investment Models
(a) Need for Investment
(b) Sources of Investment
(c) Types of Investment Models
- Domestic Investment Models
- Public Investment Model
- Private Investment Model
- Public Private Participation Investment Model
- Foreign Investment Models:
- FII, etc.
- Sector Specific Investment Models
- Cluster Based Investment Models
(d) Investment Models Followed by India
(a) Major Crops Cropping Patterns in Various Parts of the Country
- Importance of Cropping Pattern
- Types of Cropping Pattern
- Reasons Why Cropping Pattern Differ
- Factors Influencing Cropping Pattern
- Emerging Trends in Cropping Pattern
- Long-Run Effects of Current Trends in Cropping Pattern
(b) Different Types of Irrigation & Irrigation Systems Storage
- Modes of Irrigation
- Sources of Irrigation
- Choosing an Irrigation System
- Problems Associated with Irrigation
- Progress of Irrigation Under Five Year Plans
- Environmental Effects of Irrigation
- Need for Systemic Irrigation Reforms
- Need for a National Water Policy
(c) Transport & Marketing of Agricultural Produce & Issues & Related Constraints
- Process of Agricultural Marketing – Marketing Channels, Functionaries, Costs, etc.
- Role of FCI
- Regulated Markets
- Cooperative Marketing
- Shortcomings of Current Agricultural Marketing Process
- National Agricultural Market (NAM)
- Farmer Producer Organizations (FPO)
- Contract Farming
- Futures Trading in Agricultural Commodities
(d) E-Technology in the Aid of Farmers, Technology Missions
(f) Issues Related to Direct & Indirect Farm Subsidies & Minimum Support Prices
- Agricultural Pricing Policy
- Rationale for Subsidies
- Types of Subsidies
- Effectiveness, Extent & Problems of Subsidies
- Clash with WTO Agreements
(g) Public Distribution System Objectives, Functioning, Limitations, Revamping
- Functioning – Fair Price Shops, FCI, Ration Cards, Aadhar Linking, etc.
- Shortcomings or Problems Associated with PDS
- Need to Improve the Working of PDS
- Measures to Improve the Loopholes & Lacunas Associated with PDS
- Steps Taken by Government in this Regard
(h) Issues of Buffer Stocks & Food Security
- Buffer Stock – Objectives & Norms in India
- Impact of Government Procurement & Distribution
- Need for Food Security
- NFSM and the Food Security Related Government Initiatives
(i) Economics of Animal-Rearing
(j) Food Processing & Related Industries in India
- Scope & Potential in India
- Constraints and Challenges
- Upstream & Downstream Requirements
- Supply Chain Management
- Government Policies and Initiatives – SAMPADA, 12th FYP, etc.
3.BIODIVERSITY & ENVIRONMENT
(a) What is Biodiversity?
(b) Types of Biodiversity – Genetic, Species, Ecosystem, etc.
(c) Importance of Biodiversity – Ecosystem Services, Bio Resources of Economic Importance, Social Benefits etc.
(d) Reasons for Loss of Biodiversity
- In-situ & Ex-Situ
- Eco-Sensitive Areas
- Ecological Hotspots
- National Guidelines, Legislation & Other Programs.
- International Agreements & Groupings
3.2. Environmental Pollution & Degradation
(a) Types of Pollution & Pollutants
(b) Impact of Pollution & Degradation
- Ozone Layer Depletion and Ozone Hole
- Greenhouse Gas Effect & Global Warming
- Acid Rain
- Hazardous Waste, etc.
(c) Causes/Sources of Pollution & Degradation
(d) Prevention & Control of Pollution & Degradation
(e) National Environment Agencies, Legislation and Policies
(f) International Environment Agencies & Agreements
3.3. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
- What is EIA?
- Indian Guidelines & Legislations
- EIA Process
- Need & Benefits of EIA
- Shortcomings of EIA in India
- Measures to Make EIA Effective
3.4. Disaster Management
- Types of Disasters
- Management of Disasters
- Community Level Disaster Management
- Government Initiatives on Disaster Management
1. Linkages Between Development & Spread of Extremism
- Factors Responsible for Spread of Extremism
- Steps that State can Taken to Reduce the Spread of Extremism due to Underdevelopment
4.2. Role of External State & Non-State Actors in Creating Challenges to Internal Security
(a) Threats from Non-State Actors
- J&K Separatism
- Left Wing Extremism
- North East Insurgency
- Terrorism in Hinterland & Border Areas
- Right Wing Terrorism
(b) Reasons for Spread of Terrorism
(c) State Sponsored Terrorism
(d) Institutional Framework to Tackle Challenge of Internal Security
4. 3. Challenges to Internal Security Through Communication Networks
- Role of Media & Social Networking Sites in Internal Security Challenges
- Challenges in Managing Social Media
- Steps That can be Taken
4.4. Basics of Cyber Security
- Cyber Security
- Threats to Indian Cyber Security
- Steps taken by India
- International Cooperation on Cyber Security
- Cyber Warfare
- Terms Associated with Cyber Security
4.5. Money-Laundering & its Prevention
- Process of Money Laundering
- Impact of Money Laundering
- Challenges to Tackle Money Laundering
- Steps to Counter Money Laundering
- Terms Related To Money Laundering
4.6. Security Challenges & their Management in Border Areas
- Challenges in Managing Border Security – Coastal & Terrestrial
- Land Boundary Disputes with Neighbors
- India’s Policy in Border Area Security Management
4.7. Linkages of Organized Crime with Terrorism
- Types of Organized Crime
- Challenges in Controlling Organized Crime
- Indian Context – Link between Organized Crime & Terrorism
4.8. Various Security Forces & Agencies & Their Mandate
- Central Armed Police Forces
- Central Paramilitary Forces
- Security & Intelligence Agencies – IB. R&WA, etc