GS Paper-1 Syllabus for UPSC Main Exam

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GS Paper-1 Syllabus for UPSC Main Exam:

Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society.

  • Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.
  • Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.
  • The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.
  • Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.
  • History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.
  • Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.
  • Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.
  • Effects of globalization on Indian society.
  • Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.
  • Salient features of world’s physical geography.
  • Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent); factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India).
  • Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.
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Details GS-1 Syllabus bellow:

HISTORY

Indian Heritage & Culture

1. Indian Art Forms
Indian Paintings
♦ Classical Dance Forms
♦ Folk Dance Forms
♦ Classical Music
♦ Puppetry
♦ Pottery
♦ Drama/Theater
♦  Martial Arts

2. Literature
♦ Ancient Indian Literature
♦ Classical Sanskrit Literature
♦ Literature in Pali and Prakrit
♦ Early Dravidian Literature
♦ Medieval Literature
♦ Women Poets of Bhakti
♦ Trends in Medieval Literature
♦  Modern Indian Literature
3. Architecture
♦ Harappan Architecture
♦ Temple Architecture
♦ Cave Architecture
♦ Indo-Islamic Architecture
♦ Medieval Architecture
♦ Modern Architecture
♦ Contribution of Buddhism & Jainism to the Development of Indian Architecture
♦ Rock Cut Architecture
♦  Colonial Architecture & the Modern Period

 

Modern Indian History
Middle of the Eighteenth Century Until The Present
♦ Socio-economic Condition of People
♦ European Penetration of India
♦ British Conquest of India
♦ British Policies & Their Impact – Economic, Administrative & Socio-cultural
♦ Socio-cultural Reform Movements
Uprisings Against British Pre-1857
The Freedom Struggle
1. Revolt of 1857
2. Growth of Nationalism in India (1858-1905)
♦ Political, Economic & Administrative Unification of the Country
♦ Role of Western Education
♦ Role of Press
♦ Rediscovery of India’s Past
♦ Early Political Movements
♦ Formation of INC
Era of Moderates
3. Growth of Militant Nationalism & Revolutionary Activities (1905-1918)
♦ Swadeshi & Boycott Movement
♦ Surat Split
♦ International Influence
♦ Morley – Minto Reforms
♦ Growth of Communalism 
4. Beginning of Mass Nationalism (1919-1939)
♦ Mahatma Gandhi – His Ideas & Leadership
♦ Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms
♦ Rowlatt Act, Satyagrah and Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
♦ Non-cooperation & Khilafat Movement
♦ Swarajists & No-Changers
♦ Emergence of New Forces – Socialistic Ideas, Youth & Trade Unionism
♦ Revolutionary Activity
♦ Simon Commission & Nehru Report
♦ Civil Disobedience Movement
♦ Round Table Conferences
♦ Communal Award & Poona Pact
♦ Participation in Elections to Central Legislature (1934) & Provincial Assemblies (1937)
♦ Government of India Act, 1935
6. Towards Freedom & Partition (1939-1947)
♦ National Movement During World War II
♦ August Offer
♦ Individual Satyagraha
♦ Growth of Communalism
♦ Peasant Movements
♦ State People’s Struggle
♦ Cripps Mission
♦ Quit India Movement
♦ Wavell Plan
♦ INA & Subhash Chandra Bose
♦ Cabinet Mission
♦ Nationalist Upsurge Post-World War II
Independence with Partition

 

Post-independence Consolidation
1. Nation Building
♦ Partition and Its Aftermath
♦ Integration of Princely States
♦ Reorganization of States
♦ Issue of Official Language
♦ Tribal Consolidation
Regional Aspirations
2. Foreign Policy
♦ Non-Aligned Movement
♦ Panchsheel
♦ Wars with Pakistan & China
Nuclear Policy
3. Economy
♦ Planned Development
♦ Green Revolution, Operation Flood & Cooperatives
♦ Agrarian & Land Reforms
♦ Industrial Reforms
LPG Reforms
4. Polity

♦ Era of One-Party Dominance
♦ Emergence of Opposition Parties
♦ Emergency: Crisis of Democratic Order
♦ Rise of Regional Parties
Coalition Era

5. Social
♦ Popular Movements
♦ Communalism
♦ Indian Women Since Independence
Naxalism

 

History of the World
1. Industrial Revolution
♦ Renaissance
♦ Discovery of Sea Routes
♦ Reformation
♦ Counter Reformation
♦ European Nations Settle North America
♦ Rise of Slave Trade
♦ American War of Independence
♦ French Revolution
♦ Nationalism in Europe
♦  Rise of Capitalism, Colonialism & Imperialism
2. World War I
♦ Causes of the War
♦ Scope & Course of the War
♦ Russian Revolution
♦ End of the War & Peace Treaties
♦ Consequences of the War
♦  League of Nations
3. World Between the Two Wars
♦ Europe After the War – Fascism & Nazism
♦ The Great Depression
♦ Emergence of Soviet Union
♦ Nationalist Movements in Asia & Africa
♦  US as a Strong Power
4. World War II

♦ Fascist Aggression & Response of Western Democracies
♦ Outbreak of the War
♦ Theatres of the War
♦ US Entry into the War
♦ Global Nature of the War
♦ The Holocaust
♦ Resistance Movements
♦  After-effects of the War

5. Decolonization & Redrawal of National Boundaries
♦ Europe after World War II
♦ Cold War
♦ Rise of Asia & Africa
♦ Developments in West Asia & North Africa
♦ Spread of Communism
♦ Korean War
♦ Vietnam War
♦ Cuban Crisis
♦  Collapse of Soviet Union
6. Concept, Types & Social Impact of Political Philosophies
♦ Communism
♦ Capitalism
♦  Socialism

 

INDIAN SOCIETY

1. Salient Features of Indian Society
♦ Diversity (Types – caste, linguistic, social and religious, race, tribe and ethnicity, culture)
♦ Challenges posed by Diversity
♦ Unity
♦ Pluralism
♦ Unity in Diversity
♦ Inequality and Exclusion
♦ Family System
♦  Examples of above.
2. Role of Women and Women’s Organization
♦ Women’s Organizations – Empowerment through Action
♦ 19th Century Social Reform Movements and Early Women’s Organizations – (1) Agrarian Struggles and Revolt, (2) Participation in Freedom Struggle
♦ Women’s Organizations Post – 1947
♦ Resurgence of Women’s Movement in the 70s: (1) Emergence of New Organizations, (2) Approaches and Issues
♦ Contemporary Women’s Issues & Organization Response
♦ Women’s Organizations and SHGs
♦  Challenges faced by Women’s Organizations
3. Population and Associated Issues:

♦ Basic Demography of India

♦ Population Trends in India and their Implications

♦ Causes and Effects of Over Population

♦ Challenges of Population Explosion

♦ Changing Age Structure of Indian Population

♦ Demographic Dividend: Boon or Bane for India

♦ Population Aging in India

♦  India’s Population Policy & Initiatives

4. Poverty and Developmental Issues
♦ Concept of Development and Poverty
♦ Types of Poverty
♦ Measurement of Poverty – Poverty Line
♦ Causes of Poverty
♦ Poverty as a Social Problem
♦ Socio-economic Spread of Poverty
♦ Consequences of Poverty –
o Inequality
o   Continuation of Vicious Cycle
o   Who is worst affected by poverty?♦ Problem of Rising Urban Poverty
♦ Poverty Alleviation Initiatives
♦ Policy shift from “Trickle Down” Economics to Inclusive or Pro-poor Development to Reduce Poverty
♦  Relation between Poverty Reduction and Development: Poverty-Inequality-Development Nexus
5. Urbanization

♦ Urbanization Trends in India and Their Implications – Demographics and Social Dimensions
♦ Factors Driving Urbanization
♦ State of Service Delivery and Challenges posed by Urbanization
♦ Problems of Urban Areas
♦ Social Consequences of Urbanization
♦ Impact of Urbanization in Rural Areas
♦ Urban Planning and Role of Urban Local Bodies (ULBs)
♦ Reforms Required and Government Initiatives Taken So Far
♦  Problems of Slums

6. Effects of Globalization on Indian Society

♦ Understanding Globalization – Its Different Dimensions
♦ Globalization & Culture – Homogenization vs. Globalization
♦ Factors Driving Globalization
♦ Globalization & India
♦ Impact of Globalization on India – Socio-cultural, economic, on women, agrarian sector, etc.
♦  Does Globalization Cause Poverty?

7. Social Empowerment
♦ Which are the Socially Disadvantaged Groups?
♦ Dimensions of Social Empowerment
♦  Government Initiatives to Aide Social Empowerment

8. Communalism
♦ Communalism – Its Characteristics
♦ Communalism in India in the Past
♦ Communalism in Contemporary India
♦ Causes of Communalism
♦ Consequences of Communalism
♦ Measures to Control & Eradicate Communalism
♦  Secularism as an Antidote to Communalism
9.Regionalism

♦ Concept of Region & Regionalism
♦ Different Forms of Regionalism
♦ Regionalism in India
♦ Causes of Regionalism
♦ Concept of ‘Sons of Soil’
♦ Consequences of Regionalism
♦ Federalism & Regionalism
♦ Role of Regional Parties
♦ Measures to Contain Regionalism
♦ Regionalism in the International Sphere

 

10. Secularism
♦ Concept of Secularism
♦ Indian Model of Secularism
♦ Secularism in India
♦ Nature & Practice of Secularism in India
♦ Uniform Civil Code
♦ Challenges faced by Secularism in India
♦  Measures to Make India Truly Secular

 

GEOGRAPHY
Salient Features of World’s Physical Geography
1. Geomorphology
♦ Origin & Evolution of Earth
♦ Interior of the Earth
♦ Distribution of Continents & Oceans
♦ Plate Tectonic Theory
♦ Distribution of Earthquakes & Volcanoes
♦ Rocks & Rock Cycle
♦ Geomorphic Processes – Endogenic & Exogenic
♦  Landforms & their Evolution
2. Oceanography
♦ Hydrological Cycle
♦ Seafloor Spreading
♦ Ocean Floor Configuration
♦ Temperature & Salinity of Oceans
♦  Movement of Oceans – Waves, Tides, Currents
3. Climatology
♦ Earth’s Atmosphere – Composition & Structure
♦ Solar Radiation, Heat Budget & Temperature
♦ Atmospheric Circulation & Weather Systems
♦  World Climate (examples)
4. Soil Geography

♦ Soil & Soil Contents
♦ Process of Soil Formation
♦ Soil Forming Factors
♦ Types of Soils (examples)
♦  Soil Erosion & Conservation

 

Distribution of Key Natural Resources Across the World
1. Types of Resources
♦ On the Basis of Origin, Ownership, Exhaust-ability etc.
2. Land Resources
♦ Land Utilization
♦ Land Use Pattern
♦ Land Degradation & Conservation
3. Forest Resources
♦ Types & Distribution – Grasslands, Forests etc.
♦ Causes of Depletion
♦ Conservation of Forests
4. Water Resources
♦ Marine & Freshwater
♦ Water Scarcity & Need For Conservation
♦ Integrated Water Resources Management
5. Agricultural Resources
♦ Types of Farming
♦ Cropping Patterns
♦ Contribution to Economy, Employment & Output
♦  Food Security
6. Mineral & Energy Resources
♦ Classification of Minerals – Ferrous & Non-Ferrous
♦ Occurrence of Minerals
♦ Conservation of Minerals
♦ Classification of Energy Resources – Conventional & Non-Conventional
♦ Occurrence of Energy Resources
♦  Conservation of Energy Resources

Factors Responsible for the Location of Industries

1. Classification of Industries
2. Location & Distribution of the Industries on the Basis of

  • Raw Material
  • Labour
  • Market
  • Capital
  • Land
  • Grants & Financial Incentives
  • Power
  • Transport
  • Water
  • Communication

3. Distribution of Major Industries – Iron & Steel, IT, Cotton Textile
4. Agglomeration & Footloose Industries

Important Geophysical Phenomena
1. Earthquakes
♦ Why Does Earth Shake?
♦ Earthquake Waves
♦ Shadow Zone
♦ Types of Earthquake
♦ Measuring Earthquake
♦  Effects of Earthquake
2. Tsunami
♦ What Causes Tsunami
♦ Effect of Tsunami
♦  Mitigating the Impact of Tsunami
3. Volcanoes
♦ Types of Volcanoes
♦ What Causes Volcanoes?
♦  Volcanic Landforms
4. Cyclone

♦ Tropical Cyclones
♦ Anti-Cyclone
♦  Extra Tropical Cyclones

Geographical Features and their Location

  • Factors Causing Changes in Critical Geographical Features
  • Examples of Changing Geographical Features – Melting of Ice Sheets, Desertification etc.
  • Impact of Changing Geographical Features
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