GS Paper-1 Syllabus for UPSC Main Exam

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GS Paper-1 Syllabus for UPSC Main Exam:

Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society.

  • Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.
  • Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.
  • The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.
  • Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.
  • History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.
  • Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.
  • Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.
  • Effects of globalization on Indian society.
  • Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.
  • Salient features of world’s physical geography.
  • Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent); factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India).
  • Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.
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Details GS-1 Syllabus bellow:

HISTORY

Indian Heritage & Culture

1. Indian Art Forms Indian Paintings ♦ Classical Dance Forms ♦ Folk Dance Forms ♦ Classical Music ♦ Puppetry ♦ Pottery ♦ Drama/Theater ♦  Martial Arts

♦ Harappan Architecture ♦ Temple Architecture ♦ Cave Architecture ♦ Indo-Islamic Architecture ♦ Medieval Architecture ♦ Modern Architecture ♦ Contribution of Buddhism & Jainism to the Development of Indian Architecture ♦ Rock Cut Architecture ♦  Colonial Architecture & the Modern Period

 

Modern Indian History
Middle of the Eighteenth Century Until The Present ♦ Socio-economic Condition of People ♦ European Penetration of India ♦ British Conquest of India ♦ British Policies & Their Impact – Economic, Administrative & Socio-cultural ♦ Socio-cultural Reform Movements Uprisings Against British Pre-1857
The Freedom Struggle
1. Revolt of 1857
2. Growth of Nationalism in India (1858-1905) ♦ Political, Economic & Administrative Unification of the Country ♦ Role of Western Education ♦ Role of Press ♦ Rediscovery of India’s Past ♦ Early Political Movements ♦ Formation of INC Era of Moderates3. Growth of Militant Nationalism & Revolutionary Activities (1905-1918) ♦ Swadeshi & Boycott Movement ♦ Surat Split ♦ International Influence ♦ Morley – Minto Reforms ♦ Growth of Communalism 
4. Beginning of Mass Nationalism (1919-1939) ♦ Mahatma Gandhi – His Ideas & Leadership ♦ Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms ♦ Rowlatt Act, Satyagrah and Jallianwala Bagh Massacre ♦ Non-cooperation & Khilafat Movement ♦ Swarajists & No-Changers ♦ Emergence of New Forces – Socialistic Ideas, Youth & Trade Unionism ♦ Revolutionary Activity ♦ Simon Commission & Nehru Report ♦ Civil Disobedience Movement ♦ Round Table Conferences ♦ Communal Award & Poona Pact ♦ Participation in Elections to Central Legislature (1934) & Provincial Assemblies (1937) ♦ Government of India Act, 19356. Towards Freedom & Partition (1939-1947) ♦ National Movement During World War II ♦ August Offer ♦ Individual Satyagraha ♦ Growth of Communalism ♦ Peasant Movements ♦ State People’s Struggle ♦ Cripps Mission ♦ Quit India Movement ♦ Wavell Plan ♦ INA & Subhash Chandra Bose ♦ Cabinet Mission ♦ Nationalist Upsurge Post-World War II Independence with Partition

 

Post-independence Consolidation
1. Nation Building ♦ Partition and Its Aftermath ♦ Integration of Princely States ♦ Reorganization of States ♦ Issue of Official Language ♦ Tribal Consolidation Regional Aspirations2. Foreign Policy ♦ Non-Aligned Movement ♦ Panchsheel ♦ Wars with Pakistan & China Nuclear Policy
3. Economy ♦ Planned Development ♦ Green Revolution, Operation Flood & Cooperatives ♦ Agrarian & Land Reforms ♦ Industrial Reforms LPG Reforms4. Polity

♦ Era of One-Party Dominance ♦ Emergence of Opposition Parties ♦ Emergency: Crisis of Democratic Order ♦ Rise of Regional Parties Coalition Era

5. Social ♦ Popular Movements ♦ Communalism ♦ Indian Women Since Independence Naxalism

 

History of the World
1. Industrial Revolution ♦ Renaissance ♦ Discovery of Sea Routes ♦ Reformation ♦ Counter Reformation ♦ European Nations Settle North America ♦ Rise of Slave Trade ♦ American War of Independence ♦ French Revolution ♦ Nationalism in Europe ♦  Rise of Capitalism, Colonialism & Imperialism2. World War I ♦ Causes of the War ♦ Scope & Course of the War ♦ Russian Revolution ♦ End of the War & Peace Treaties ♦ Consequences of the War ♦  League of Nations
3. World Between the Two Wars ♦ Europe After the War – Fascism & Nazism ♦ The Great Depression ♦ Emergence of Soviet Union ♦ Nationalist Movements in Asia & Africa ♦  US as a Strong Power4. World War II

♦ Fascist Aggression & Response of Western Democracies ♦ Outbreak of the War ♦ Theatres of the War ♦ US Entry into the War ♦ Global Nature of the War ♦ The Holocaust ♦ Resistance Movements ♦  After-effects of the War

5. Decolonization & Redrawal of National Boundaries ♦ Europe after World War II ♦ Cold War ♦ Rise of Asia & Africa ♦ Developments in West Asia & North Africa ♦ Spread of Communism ♦ Korean War ♦ Vietnam War ♦ Cuban Crisis ♦  Collapse of Soviet Union6. Concept, Types & Social Impact of Political Philosophies ♦ Communism ♦ Capitalism ♦  Socialism

 

INDIAN SOCIETY

♦ Diversity (Types – caste, linguistic, social and religious, race, tribe and ethnicity, culture) ♦ Challenges posed by Diversity ♦ Unity ♦ Pluralism ♦ Unity in Diversity ♦ Inequality and Exclusion ♦ Family System ♦  Examples of above.
♦ Basic Demography of India

♦ Population Trends in India and their Implications

♦ Causes and Effects of Over Population

♦ Challenges of Population Explosion

♦ Changing Age Structure of Indian Population

♦ Demographic Dividend: Boon or Bane for India

♦ Population Aging in India

♦  India’s Population Policy & Initiatives

♦ Urbanization Trends in India and Their Implications – Demographics and Social Dimensions ♦ Factors Driving Urbanization ♦ State of Service Delivery and Challenges posed by Urbanization ♦ Problems of Urban Areas ♦ Social Consequences of Urbanization ♦ Impact of Urbanization in Rural Areas ♦ Urban Planning and Role of Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) ♦ Reforms Required and Government Initiatives Taken So Far ♦  Problems of Slums7. Social Empowerment ♦ Which are the Socially Disadvantaged Groups? ♦ Dimensions of Social Empowerment ♦  Government Initiatives to Aide Social Empowerment
♦ Concept of Region & Regionalism ♦ Different Forms of Regionalism ♦ Regionalism in India ♦ Causes of Regionalism ♦ Concept of ‘Sons of Soil’ ♦ Consequences of Regionalism ♦ Federalism & Regionalism ♦ Role of Regional Parties ♦ Measures to Contain Regionalism ♦ Regionalism in the International Sphere

 

GEOGRAPHY
Salient Features of World’s Physical Geography
1. Geomorphology ♦ Origin & Evolution of Earth ♦ Interior of the Earth ♦ Distribution of Continents & Oceans ♦ Plate Tectonic Theory ♦ Distribution of Earthquakes & Volcanoes ♦ Rocks & Rock Cycle ♦ Geomorphic Processes – Endogenic & Exogenic ♦  Landforms & their Evolution2. Oceanography ♦ Hydrological Cycle ♦ Seafloor Spreading ♦ Ocean Floor Configuration ♦ Temperature & Salinity of Oceans ♦  Movement of Oceans – Waves, Tides, Currents
3. Climatology ♦ Earth’s Atmosphere – Composition & Structure ♦ Solar Radiation, Heat Budget & Temperature ♦ Atmospheric Circulation & Weather Systems ♦  World Climate (examples)4. Soil Geography

♦ Soil & Soil Contents ♦ Process of Soil Formation ♦ Soil Forming Factors ♦ Types of Soils (examples) ♦  Soil Erosion & Conservation

 

Distribution of Key Natural Resources Across the World
1. Types of Resources ♦ On the Basis of Origin, Ownership, Exhaust-ability etc. 2. Land Resources ♦ Land Utilization ♦ Land Use Pattern ♦ Land Degradation & Conservation 3. Forest Resources ♦ Types & Distribution – Grasslands, Forests etc. ♦ Causes of Depletion ♦ Conservation of Forests 4. Water Resources ♦ Marine & Freshwater ♦ Water Scarcity & Need For Conservation ♦ Integrated Water Resources Management5. Agricultural Resources ♦ Types of Farming ♦ Cropping Patterns ♦ Contribution to Economy, Employment & Output ♦  Food Security 6. Mineral & Energy Resources ♦ Classification of Minerals – Ferrous & Non-Ferrous ♦ Occurrence of Minerals ♦ Conservation of Minerals ♦ Classification of Energy Resources – Conventional & Non-Conventional ♦ Occurrence of Energy Resources ♦  Conservation of Energy Resources

Factors Responsible for the Location of Industries

1. Classification of Industries 2. Location & Distribution of the Industries on the Basis of

  • Raw Material
  • Labour
  • Market
  • Capital
  • Land
  • Grants & Financial Incentives
  • Power
  • Transport
  • Water
  • Communication

3. Distribution of Major Industries – Iron & Steel, IT, Cotton Textile 4. Agglomeration & Footloose Industries

Important Geophysical Phenomena
1. Earthquakes ♦ Why Does Earth Shake? ♦ Earthquake Waves ♦ Shadow Zone ♦ Types of Earthquake ♦ Measuring Earthquake ♦  Effects of Earthquake2. Tsunami ♦ What Causes Tsunami ♦ Effect of Tsunami ♦  Mitigating the Impact of Tsunami
3. Volcanoes ♦ Types of Volcanoes ♦ What Causes Volcanoes? ♦  Volcanic Landforms4. Cyclone

♦ Tropical Cyclones ♦ Anti-Cyclone ♦  Extra Tropical Cyclones

Geographical Features and their Location

  • Factors Causing Changes in Critical Geographical Features
  • Examples of Changing Geographical Features – Melting of Ice Sheets, Desertification etc.
  • Impact of Changing Geographical Features
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