Quiz-9: Child Development and Pedagogy MCQ Question

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Child Development and Pedagogy MCQ Question

Directions (Q. 1-30): Answer the following questions by selecting the most appropriate option.

Q1. Mind mapping refers to

(a) Drawing the picture of a mind

(b) Researching the functioning of the mind

(c) The techniques to enhance comprehension

(d) A plan of action for an adventure

Answer: (c)

Explanation: Mind mapping is a technique to enhance the understanding of a topic or theme. It begins with revolving about the central idea and then moving in-depth. This technique enables students to identify links between the building blocks of a complex concept, thus facilitating their comprehension of the concept.

Q2. “Readiness for learning” refers to

(a) The general ability level of students

(b) The present cognitive level of students in the learning continuum

(c) Satisfying nature of the act of learning

(d) Thorndike’s law of readiness

Answer: (b)

Explanation: The Readiness to Learn (RTL) of a child helps his/her parents or teachers determine the present cognitive level of the child in the learning continuum. This determination helps in selecting teaching strategies and activities as appropriate for the child.

Q3. “How do children learn?” Which one of the following is not true with respect to this statement?

(a) Children learn in a number of ways.

(b) Children learn as they are naturally motivated.

(c) Children learn in the class only.

(d) Children learn when they are cognitively ready.

Answer: (c)

Explanation: Learning is a lifelong process. An individual’s learning phase begins in infancy post-birth. So, we cannot say that children learn only in the classroom. They learn about many things and acquire new behaviours from their home, personal relationships and environment or surroundings as well.

Q4. Giving punishment, verbal or non-verbal, to children results in

(a) Protecting children’s image

(b) Improving their scores

(c) Damaging their self-concept

(d) Motivating them to work

Answer: (c)

Explanation: Punishments may cause a child to start believing that he/she is unimportant, incompetent, unloved, insecure and unwanted. The child may begin to doubt his/her self or existence. Therefore, the first and best way to make young children realise and rectify their mistakes is through the use of love and guidance.

Q5. Mass media is becoming a very important agency of socialisation. Which one of the following is the most appropriate statement?

(a) Access to mass media is growing, and mass media influences attitudes, values and beliefs.

(b) Children cannot directly interact with media.

(c) Media is a very good way to advertise and sell products.

(d) Socialisation is done by parents and the family only.

Answer: (a)

Explanation: In teaching, mass media can help as the primary source of communication by connecting students, teachers, schools and societies with each other. Newspapers, magazines, radio, television and the Internet are some popular examples of mass media that can be effectively deployed in the teaching-learning process.

Q6. A teacher never gives answers to questions herself. She encourages her students to suggest answers, have group discussions and adopts collaborative learning. This approach is based on the principle of

(a) Proper organisation of instructional material

(b) Setting a good example and being a role model

(c) Readiness to learn

(d) Active participation

Answer: (d)

Explanation: Active participation focuses on encouraging students to suggest answers, have group discussions and adopt collaborative learning, rather than being dependent on the teacher.

Q7. School-based assessment

(a) Dilutes the accountability of Boards of Education

(b) Hinders achieving universal national standards

(c) Helps all students learn more thorough diagnosis

(d) Makes students and teachers non-serious and casual

Answer: (c)

Explanation: School-based assessments (SBAs) help all students learn more through diagnosis. In an SBA, there is a team of teachers who work as per the requirement of the syllabus with the authority of developing or reviewing the present policies. SBAS are a type of project work.

Q8. IQ scores are generally correlated with academic performance.

(a) Perfectly

(b) Highly

(c) Moderately

(d) Least

Answer: (c)

Explanation: The IQ score and school achievement of a student do not share a perfect relationship. For various reasons, some students may not perform in exams as good as their IQ scores have been, and vice versa.

Q9. Learning experiences should be planned in a manner so as to make learning meaningful. Which of the given learning experiences does not facilitate meaningful learning for children?

(a) Formulating questions on content

(b) Discussion and debate on the topic

(c) Presentation on the topic

(d) Repetition based on mere recall of content

Answer: (d)

Explanation: ‘Repetition based on mere recall of content is related to the knowledge level’ at the first stage in Bloom’s taxonomy. The knowledge level does not impart meaningful learning to children as compared to other levels, which are higher-order learning levels.

Q10. Intellectual development in early childhood does not show

(a) Increased span of attention

(b) Exploration of the environment

(c) Interpretation of logical concepts

(d) Distinction between past, present and future

Answer: (c)

Explanation: In the early childhood phase, a child acquires only basic communication skills such as speaking, reading, listening and writing. A child starts reasoning, solving complex problems and thinking logically as he/she nears the adolescence phase. This capacity develops with further learning and experiences.

Q11. The assessment of students can be used by teachers in teaching to develop insight for

(a) Not promoting those students who do not meet school standards

(b) Changing the teaching approach according to the learner’s need

(c) Creating groups of ‘bright’ and ‘weak’ students in the class

(d) Identifying the students who need to be promoted to the higher class

Answer: (b)

Explanation: Assessment is a tool of evaluation. During the assessment, a teacher comes to know which teaching approach will be appropriate for students as per their mental maturity and needs.

Q12. A child of 16 years scores 75 on an IQ test. His mental age will be years.

(a) 8

(b) 14

(c) 15

(d) 12

Answer: (d)

Explanation: Formula for calculating IQ: Mental age ÷ Physical age x 100 = IQ

Mental age ÷ 16 x 100 = 75

Mental age = 12 years

Q13. What is meant by ‘nature’ in the nature-nurture controversy?

(a) Temperament of an individual

(b) Complex forces of the physical and social world

(c) The environment around us

(d) Biological givens or the hereditary information

Answer: (d)

Explanation: In the nature-nurture debate, both terms are closely related to human development. According to the ‘nature’ aspect of the debate, human development is a natural process, which is predicated by an individual’s DNA. In contrast, the ‘nurture’ aspect emphasises that human development is the result of an individual’s personal life experience, which he/she acquires from the surrounding environment from birth to death.

Q14. The four basic elements of the development process were identified by

(a) Erikson

(b) Skinner

(c) Piaget

(d) Kohlberg

Answer: (c)

Explanation: According to Jean Piaget, the development process of an individual’s life consists of four basic elements: maturation, social transmission, experiences and equilibration by

Q15. Which of the following will foster creativity among learners?

(a) Emphasising achievement of goals from the beginning of school life

(b) Coaching students for good marks in the examination

(c) Teaching students the practical value of good education

(d) Providing opportunities to question and to nurture the innate talents of every learner 16. Which of the following would least encourage a student who wants to become a highly creative theatre artist?

Answer: (d)

Explanation: Creativity leads to the mental development of children providing opportunities to explore new ideas and find innovative ways of thinking and problem solving

Q16. Which of the following would least encourage a student who wants to become a highly creative theatre artist?

(a) Students should try to win the state-level competition that will ensure them a scholarship.

(b) Student should develop empathetic, amicable and supportive relationships with his peer theatre artists.

(c) Student should devote his time to those theatrical skills that you find the most enjoyable.

(d) Students should read about the performances of the world’s best theatre artists and try to learn.

Answer: (a)

Explanation: When a learner is internally motivated, he/she works less for material benefits, more for self-satisfaction or self-esteem.

Q17. Quality of air and food that a child intake comes under the factors.

(a) Parental environment

(b) Physical environment

(c) Learning environment

(d) Cultural environment

Answer: (b)

Explanation: Physical environment factors denote the physical factors that exist in the environment of a child and influence his/her growth.

Q18. According to Kohlberg, a teacher can instil moral values in children by

(a) Giving importance to religious teachings

(b) Laying clear rules of behaviour

(c) Involving them in discussions on moral issues

(d) Giving strict instructions on how to behave’

Answer: (c)

Explanation: According to Kohlberg, at the conventional stage, children learn about rules and authorities. At this stage, social interaction or discussions help learners understand the concept and importance of moral values and duties. So, by involving children in discussions on moral issues, a teacher can promote their moral development.

Q19. Gender discrimination in a classroom

(a) Does not affect the performance of students

(b) May lead to diminished efforts or performance of students

(c) May lead to enhanced efforts or performance of the male students

(d) is done more by the male teachers than their female counterparts

Answer: (b)

Explanation: Gender discrimination can be described as a biased or prejudiced attitude towards a particular gender. This discrimination can find a way into a classroom if the teacher gives preference or learning opportunities to certain students according to their gender or status and not for their potential or needs. Gender representation in the curriculum is also a big factor. Such unfair treatment leads to the reduced self-efficacy of the discriminated child.

Q20. Which of the following is not a reason for integrating student-centred learning in a curriculum?

(a) Promotes peer communication.

(b) Builds student-teacher relationship.

(c) Promotes active learning.

(d) Increases disruptive behaviour.

Answer: (d)

Explanation: Student-centred learning does not increase disruptive behaviour rather controls it.

Q21. Which one of the following is an example of learning styles?

(a) Visual

(b) Accrual

(c) Factual

(d) Tactual

Answer: (a)

Explanation: According to Frank Coffield et al, Visual (V), Aural (A), Reading/writing (R) and Kinesthetic (K) are the main styles of learning generally used. There are 71 different learning styles as described by Coffield.

Q22. As per Erikson’s psychosocial development theory, what is the major event at the adolescent stage?

(a) Feeding

(b) Exploration

(c) School relationships

(d) Reflection on life

Answer: (c)

Explanation: A teenager, at the adolescent stage, needs to achieve a sense of identity. The relationships that the teenager makes in the school with teachers and peers positively impact his/her social and academic outcomes.

Q23. Which of the following is a teacher-related factor affecting learning?

(a) Proper seating arrangement

(b) Availability of teaching-learning resources

(c) Nature of content or learning experiences

(d) Mastery over the subject matter

Answer: (d)

Explanation: If the teacher has mastery over the subject, he/she can impart knowledge with lots of facts related to the topics covered, or the teacher can facilitate learning by better demonstration techniques.

Q24. Phonological awareness refers to the ability to

(a) Reflect and manipulate the sound structure

(b) Speak fluently and accurately

(c) Know, understand and write

(d) Master the rules of grammar

Answer: (a)

Explanation: Phonological awareness refers to the knowledge about phonetic transcription. It enables a student to read properly with the correct pronunciation. In phonetic transcription, there is a symbol for each letter in the context of its sound of pronunciation.

Q25. Which of the following theorists would be of the opinion that students study hard for their personal growth and development?

(a) Bandura

(b) Maslow

(c) Skinner

(d) Piaget

Answer: (b)

Explanation: Every sincere student wants to obtain the highest marks in his/her class. However, according to child psychology, obtaining the highest marks is a matter of pride and self-esteem among students. We can relate this fact of students working hard for their personal growth and development to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. In this theory, there are five needs that motivate an individual to act. These are physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs and self-actualisation.

Q26. When children shift from one stage of thought to another, it is called

(a) Accommodation

(b) Equilibration

(c) Adjustment

(d) Adaptation

Answer: (b)

Explanation: Equilibration involves assimilation and accommodation of new learning in adjustment with the old one.

Q27. If a student is consistently getting lower grades in the school, her parents can be advised to help her by

(a) Working in close association with her teachers

(b) Withholding mobile phones, movies, comics and extra time for play

(c) Narrating her the hardships of life for those who do not possess proper education

(d) Forcing her to work harder at home

Answer: (a)

Explanation: An association is considered meaningful when correlation exists between events, ideas, objects or behaviours at the conscious or unconscious stage. In the context of the given question, the association is related to ‘events’ because the student is consistently getting lower grades in school. In such cases, a teacher should advise the parents of the low-performing child to cooperate with and assist the child in his/her studies at home or however possible.

Q28. The smallest unit of meaning in a language is

(a) Syntax

(b) Morpheme

(c) Phoneme

(d) Pragmatics

Answer: (b)

Explanation: A morpheme is the smallest unit of meaning in a language. It has two types: phoneme (the smallest unit of grammar) and grapheme (the smallest unit of written language).

Q29. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation emphasises

(a) Continuous testing on a comprehensive scale to ensure learning

(b) How learning can be observed, recorded and improved upon

(c) Fine-tuning of tests with teaching

(d) Redundancy of the Board examination

Answer: (b)

Explanation: CCE does not limit student assessment to periodic tests and exams but obliges teachers to observe, record and improve every student’s performance in both scholastic and non-scholastic areas. Thus, this system aims at providing a wide range of learning experiences to students including physical, intellectual, emotional and social domains.

Q30. “A young child responds to a new situation on the basis of the response made by him/her in a similar situation as in the past.” This is related to the

(a) ‘Law of Attitude’ of learning

(b) ‘Law of Readiness’ of learning

(c) ‘Law of Analogy’ of learning

(d) ‘Law of Effect’ of learning

Answer: (d)

Explanation: As per the Law of effect, as developed by Edward Thorndike, responses closely followed by satisfaction become attached to the situation. Thus, these responses are more likely to recur when a similar situation is repeated.

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