Quiz-10: Child Development and Pedagogy MCQ Question

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Child Development and Pedagogy MCQ Question
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Directions (Q. 1-30): Answer the following questions by selecting the most appropriate option.

Q1. The best way, especially at the primary level, to address the learning difficulties of students is to use

(a) Easy and interesting textbooks

(b) The storytelling method

(c) A variety of teaching methods suited to the disability

(d) Expensive and glossy support material

Answer: (c)

Explanation: The best way, especially at the primary level, to address the learning difficulties of students is to use a variety of teaching methods suited to the disability. Methods such as multisensory activities, that is, rather than just telling students about an object, the teacher can let them touch it, smell it, try it themselves, etc.

Q2. Teachers who work under School-based Assessment

(a) are overburdened as they need to take frequent tests in addition to Monday tests

(b) Need to assign project work in each subject to individual students

(c) Observe students minutely on a daily basis to assess their values and attitudes

(d) Feel a sense of ownership for the system

Answer: (d)

Explanation: Teachers who work under School-based Assessment (SBA) feel a sense of ownership for the system because they work according to the requirement of the syllabus with the authority of developing or reviewing the present policies. SBA is a type of project work.

Q3. Which of the following is true about gifted learners?

(a) They make everyone else smarter and are essential for collaborative learning.

(b) They always lead others and assume extra responsibility in the classroom.

(c) They may get lower grades due to their heightened sensitivity

(d) Their importance is primarily due to their brainpower

Answer: (c)

Explanation: Gifted children are extraordinarily talented. However, they also suffer from certain vulnerabilities-heightened sensitivity is one of them. Due to this, even gifted children may end up getting lower grades in exams, because with an increase in the degree of intellectual advancement, a child’s stress to perform and risk of social maladjustment may also increase.

Q4. Out-of-the-box thinking is related to

(a) memory-based thinking

(b) Divergent thinking

(c) Convergent thinking

(d) Consistent thinking

Answer: (b)

Explanation: Out-of-the-box thinking is related to divergent thinking. The term divergent thinking was introduced by J. P. Guilford. It is a thinking process that is used by an individual to create or generate effective ideas to explore possible solutions.

Q5. During the _______ stage, a child develops the capacity for reasoning, problem-solving and thinking.

(a) Adulthood

(b) Infancy

(c) Adolescence

(d) Childhood

Answer: (d)

Explanation: During the childhood stage, a child develops the capacity for reasoning, problem-solving and thinking. For example, he/she learns about different colours, numbers, mass, range, alphabet, objects, shapes and reasons for every activity.

Q6. A teacher collects and reads the work of the class, then plans and adjusts the next lesson to meet students’ needs. He/she is doing

(a) Assessment of learning

(b) Assessment as learning

(c) Assessment for learning

(d) Assessment at learning

Answer: (c)

Explanation: The activity that is described in the question is an assessment for learning. It can be referred to as formative assessment. This technique of evaluation helps a teacher to make strategies to find out the knowledge level of his/her students before teaching in the classroom.

Q7. The cause of learned helplessness in children is their

(a) Acquired behaviour that they will not succeed

(b) Callous attitude towards classroom activities

(c) Non-compliance with expectations of their parents

(d) Moral decision of not taking up studies seriously

Answer: (a)

Explanation: The state of learned helplessness makes one believe that however has done may try, he will not succeed. In simple words, you have learnt to be helpless. The main cause of this harmful condition among children is their inferiority complex or demotivation. It has negative effects on their personality and school performance.

Q8. We all differ in terms of our intelligence, motivation, interest, etc. This principle refers to

(a) Theories of intelligence

(b) Heredity

(c) Environment

(d) Individual differences

Answer: (d)

Explanation: Psychologists define individual differences in terms of every individual’s interest areas active within a group or class. Individual differences among children can be due to their different rates of growth, or specific genetic or environmental factors. These differences help a teacher know about the various personality traits of his/her students, whether positive or negative. This fact is also the reason why each student differs from the other in a class.

Q9. Giving children group work is an effective pedagogic strategy since

(a) Children learn from each other and support each other in the learning process

(b) Children will be able to do their work quickly

(c) It helps to reduce the teacher’s work

(d) It allows some children to dominate others in small groups

Answer: (a)

Explanation: Group tasks are given to students to develop teamwork skills. Activities of this type also focus on the principle of learning by doing,’ which makes the learning permanent. This model was introduced by CBSE in the late 19th century entitled ‘Progressive Model of Education’.

Q10. Education of children with special needs should be provided

(a) In special schools

(b) By special teachers in special schools

(c) Along with other normal children

(d) By the methods developed for special children in special schools

Answer: (c)

Explanation: Education to children with special needs should be provided along with normal children by using various teaching strategies so that each and every child’s learning is furthered without any feeling of complexity or segregation. These strategies may include audio-visual aids, pictorial graphs, debates, educational trips, etc.

Q11. Which one of the following is the primary agent of socialisation?

(a) Heredity

(b) Political parties

(c) Family

(d) Computer

Answer: (c)

Explanation: Family is the first society of a newborn child. So, the members of his/her family are the first agents of his/her socialisation.

Q12. Inclusion in schools primarily focuses on

(a) Making subtle provisions for special-category children

(b) Fulfilling the needs of children with disabilities only

(c) Meeting the need of the disabled child at the expense of the entire class

(d) Including the educational needs of illiterate parents in schools

Answer: (a)

Explanation: In the schools providing inclusive education, students with and without disabilities participate in the same class for learning and acquisition. In inclusive classrooms, both the teacher and students work together to optimise the latter’s abilities and overcome their learning difficulties. Inclusion in schools primarily focuses on making subtle provisions for children with special educational needs, such as parental involvement, special classes, free education (in most schools), technically advanced teaching learning aids, etc.

Q13. Which one of the following strategies should a primary school teacher adopt to motivate her students?

(a) Help children set goals as per their interests and support them in working towards the same.

(b) Set standard goals for the entire class and have rigid parameters to assess the achievement of those goals.

(c) Encourage competition for marks among individual students.

(d) Use incentives, rewards and punishment as motivating factors for each activity.

Answer: (a)

Explanation: A teacher should motivate his/her students towards their areas of interest. It will work as reinforcement for the students and increase the rate of their learning. This type of teacher behaviour was elaborated in the motivation theory of reinforcement by American behaviourist-psychologist B. F. Skinner.

Q14. “Like begets like” belongs to the

(a) Principle of regression

(b) Principle of variation

(c) Principle of resemblance

(d) Principle of continuation

Answer: (c)

Explanation: The principle of resemblance supports the notion of “Like begets like”. According to it, the offspring will resemble his/her parents and will have similar traits.

Q15. Vygotsky emphasised the significance of the role played by which of the following factors in the learning of children?

(a) Hereditary

(b) Moral

(c) Physical

(d) Social

Answer: (d)

Explanation: Lev Vygotsky was a social constructivist, according to whom, higher-order function and thinking processes are developed with the help of parents, peers and other members of the society. He believed that socialisation plays a vital role in the development of a child.

Q16. Socialisation denotes

(a) Modification in social norms

(b) Relationship between teachers and students

(c) Ways to modernise the society

(d) Adapting to social norms

Answer: (d)

Explanation: Socialisation occurs in schools, playgrounds and neighbourhoods where a child learns to adapt to the prevailing social norms and thus behave in an appropriate manner.

Q17. Students of disadvantaged groups should be taught along with normal students. It implies

(a) Special education

(b) Integrated education

(c) Exclusive education

(d) Inclusive education

Answer: (d)

Explanation: Students of disadvantaged groups should be taught along with normal students. It implies inclusive education, which is a system under which all kinds of students come to learn together. In this type of education, the parents of students are also involved.

Q18. The dominant element of emotion is

(a) Feeling

(b) Motive

(c) Goal

(d) Success

Answer: (a)

Explanation: Emotion is a state of feeling that results in psychological or physical changes that influence one’s behaviour.

Q19. Which of the following types of development gets affected by climatic conditions and heredity?

(a) Physical

(b) Motor

(c) Emotional

(d) Cognitive

Answer: (a)

Explanation: A child’s physical development starts with the development of muscular control. This physical development gets affected by climatic conditions and heredity. For example, under insalubrious climatic conditions, a growing child may suffer from an early impairment, malnutrition, developmental disorders, infectious diseases, etc. The effects of heredity include a child’s body structure or shapes of different body parts, or even abnormalities that he/she receives from his/her parents.

Q20. As per the progressive model of education, the socialisation of a child aims at

(a) Letting the child learn exhaustive social habits and ways to score good marks

(b) Letting the child become an active participant in a group and develop social skills

(c) Preparing the child to follow rules and norms of the society without questioning

(d) Making the child learn whatever is taught at the school irrespective of his/her social background

Answer: (b)

Explanation: Socialisation increases a child’s learning. It helps in making the child think freely and become an active participant as well as a valued member of society. This creates a basis for positive self-esteem and future success.

Q21. A teacher makes use of a variety of tasks to cater to the different learning styles of her learners. She is influenced by

(a) Kohlberg’s moral development theory

(b) Gardner’s multiple intelligence theory

(c) Vygotsky’s socio-cultural theory

(d) Piaget’s cognitive development theory

Answer: (b)

Explanation: The teacher is influenced by Gardner’s multiple intelligence theory, according to which, there are 8 kinds of intelligence:

  1. Linguistic and verbal intelligence (good with words)
  2. Logical intelligence (good at maths and solving logic problems)
  3. Spatial intelligence (good with pictures)
  4. Body/movement intelligence (good at sports and movement)
  5. Musical intelligence (good at music and rhythm)
  6. Interpersonal intelligence (good with people and communication)
  7. Intrapersonal intelligence (good at analysing things)
  8. Naturalist intelligence (good at understanding the natural world)

Q22. “How do grades differ from marks?”

This question belongs to which of the following classes of questions?

(a) Divergent

(b) Analytic

(c) Open-ended

(d) Problem-solving

Answer: (b)

Explanation: Marks and grades can be differentiated on the basis of an analytic view. In terms of evaluation, marks describe the quantitative evaluation of a learner, whereas grades describe the qualitative evaluation of a learner.

Q23. Individuals who show _________ morality observe the rules as useful but changeable mechanisms.

(a) Conventional level

(b) Pre-conventional level

(c) Post-conventional level

(d) Social contract level

Answer: (c)

Explanation: At the post-conventional level, individuals develop their own values that are seen as broader than society.

Q24. A school gives preference to girls while preparing students for a state-level solo song competition. This reflects

(a) Global trends

(b) Pragmatic approach

(c) Progressive thinking

(d) Gender bias

Answer: (d)

Explanation: According to According to Henslin, an important part of socialisation is the learning of culturally defined gender roles. The thought that girls can sing better than boys or boys can play cricket or football better than girls reflects gender bias in the school’s ideology. This is the main reason why girls and boys have different socialisation experiences.

Q25. One of the identical twin brothers is adopted by a socio-economically rich family and the other by a poor family. After one year, which one of the following may be most likely observed about their IQ scores?

(a) The boy with a socio-economically rich family will score greater than the boy with a poor family.

(b) Both of them will score equally.

(c) The boy with a poor family will score greater than the boy with a socio-economically rich family.

(d) The socio-economic level does not affect the IQ score.

Answer: (d)

Explanation: The socio-economic level does not affect the IQ score. IQ gets affected by genetic problems and environmental effects.

Q26. Which one of the following is true about the role of heredity and environment in the development of a child?

(a) The relative contributions of peers and genes are not additive.

(b) Heredity and environment do not operate together.

(c) Propensity is related to the environment, while actual development requires heredity.

(d) Both heredity and environment contribute 50% each in the development of a child.

Answer: (d)

Explanation: Heredity refers to the traits of an individual that he/she receives from his/her parents, whereas environment refers to the surroundings that enable an individual to learn or modify his/her experiences. Thus, heredity and environment both affect the development of a child.

Q27. Abhimanyu, a student from the economically weaker section takes admission in Class IV of a public school under the RTE Act. After some time, the co-students of Abhimanyu start bullying him for his poor background. As a teacher, what should you do in this situation if you are following Kohlberg’s theory of moral development?

(a) Convey it to the students that they will be punished if they continue bullying Abhimanyu.

(b) Counsel the students about accepting Abhimanyu as their fellow student.

(c) Ask Abhimanyu to avoid the students who bully him.

(d) Request the Principal to arrange a decent dress and pair of shoes for Abhimanyu.

Answer: (a)

Explanation: As per the given case, the bullying students are at the punishment-obedience orientation stage under Level 1 (pre-conventional morality) of Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory of moral development. Children at this stage can be punished to teach them appropriate behaviour because bad consequences of their actions will prevent them from repeating those actions in future.

Q28. Which one of the following optimises motivation to learn?

(a) Extrinsic factors

(b) Motivation to avoid failure

(c) Tendency to choose very easy or very difficult goals

(d) Personal satisfaction in meeting targets

Answer: (d)

Explanation: Even the best motivations by a teacher will fail if students do not have the sense of satisfaction, which will not come till they start to be credited, rather than be neglected, for their learning achievements. By providing students with feedback and rewards and letting them celebrate their success, a teacher can motivate them to learn optimally.

Q29. Which one of the following is true?

(a) Development and learning are unaffected by socio-cultural contexts.

(b) Students learn only in a certain way.

(c) Play is significant for cognition and social competence.

(d) Questioning by teachers constrains cognitive development.

Answer: (c)

Explanation: Play develops social skills in students and also the spirit of teamwork. It is also a good example of the popular learning theory, “learning by doing. This method of learning makes the learnt behaviour permanent. Play also works as an audiovisual teaching-learning material, which affects the cognitive level of students.

Q30. Boys with risk-taking capacities are often praised, whereas girls’ assertiveness is viewed as an unfeminine trait. It is an example of

(a) Intelligence

(b) Attitude

(c) Gender bias

(d) Brilliance

Answer: (c)

Explanation: The above statement shows the stereotyped thinking of the society at large both dauntlessness and obstinacy are considered the characteristics and rights of boys, whereas the same in the case of girls is taken as insolence. A girl is expected to comply even if the given circumstances are unfavourable or unfair towards her.

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